PETER DASZAK AND THE GAIN-OF-THREAT EXPERIMENTS THAT CAUSED A PANDEMIC

"GAIN OF THREAT" TO WHOM? TO HUMANITY. IT IS NO COINCIDENCE THAT DASZAK'S FATHER WAS A NAZI WAR CRIMINAL, A THREAT TO HUMANITY LIKE HIS SON...


Dr. Peter Daszak has much at stake in the assigning of blame for the pandemic. For 20 years, mostly beneath the public’s attention, he had been playing a dangerous game. In in Wuhan, China and Chapel Hill, North Carolina he, Shi Zheng Li (the "Bat Lady") and Dr. Ralph Baric routinely created viruses more dangerous than those that exist in nature. Dr. Baric had developed, and taught Dr. Shi, a general method for engineering bat coronaviruses to attack other species. The specific targets were human cells grown in cultures and humanized mice. These laboratory mice, a cheap and ethical stand-in for human subjects, are genetically engineered to carry the human version of a protein called ACE2 that studs the surface of cells that line the airways. Dr. Shi returned to her lab at the Wuhan Institute of Virology and resumed the work she had started on genetically engineering coronaviruses to attack human cells. When one of these viruses escaped the Wuhan Institute of Virology lab, millions of people became infected and millions died. However, an accidental leak is viewed as unlikely because it unacceptable to the medical science community because of its far reaching implications. If an air-borne virus is released in a very large city that is infectious long before people get sick, it will create a global pandemic before the locals know they have a problem. It is the combination of high population densities, mass transit and a global air transport industry that makes stopping such diseases impossible by conventional methods. If the virus leaked out of a Chinese lab, every Bio-Safety Level 4 (BSL-4) laboratory in the U.S. and Europe will be shut down and forced to move to more isolated locations. Daszak, Baric and their cohorts must be brought before a Nuremberg-like tribunal and if found guilty, executed for crimes against humanity. But why did they create a novel virus capable of causing a pandemic?

"Ever since virologists gained the tools for manipulating a virus’s genes, they have argued they could get ahead of a potential pandemic by exploring how close a given animal virus might be to making the jump to humans. And that justified lab experiments in enhancing the ability of dangerous animal viruses to infect people, virologists asserted. With this rationale, they have recreated the 1918 flu virus, shown how the almost extinct polio virus can be synthesized from its published DNA sequence, and introduced a smallpox gene into a related virus. These enhancements of viral capabilities are known as gain-of-function, gain-of-threat, experiments. With coronaviruses, there was particular interest in the spike proteins, which jut out all around the spherical surface of the virus and pretty much determine which species of animal it will target. In 2000 Dutch researchers, for instance, earned the gratitude of rodents everywhere by genetically engineering the spike protein of a mouse coronavirus so that it would attack only cats." This information was extracted from an article by Nicholas Wade:
https://nicholaswade.medium.com/origin-of-covid-following-the-clues

FAMILY BACKGROUND: "COTTINGTON" IS NOT DASZAK'S REAL MIDDLE NAME

England & Wales, Civil Registration Marriage Index, 1916-2005 Peter Daszak Spouse JANET D COTTINGHAM https://twitter.com/janetcottingha1 Is this a co-incidence or is Daszak hiding his Ukrainian background?

DASZAK'S FATHER, BOHDAN DASZAK, WAS A UKRAINIAN NAZI WAR CRIMINAL

PETER'S BROTHER OPERA SINGER JOHN DASZAK REVEALED PETER DASZAK HAS NAZI BLOOD IN HIS VEINS DASZAK WAS TAUGHT THE PRECEPTS OF NAZISM AS A CHILD BY HIS FATHER WHO HAD TO JUSTIFY HIS GENOCIDAL ACTIONS. HE IS FOLLOWING IN HIS FATHER'S FOOTSTEPS INVOLVING HIMSELF IN MASS MURDER

Peter’s brother, opera singer John Daszak, revealed: "My father, Bohdan Daszak, (born March 21, 1926 died February 5, 1996) was a Ukrainian who had ended up in Britain at the end of the Second World War. Thankfully for him he was taken prisoner by the Allies and later released into the community rather than sent back to Ukraine and be dispatched with. He ended up in Manchester where I was born after he married a British woman, she was half Welsh and half English – so technically I am only a quarter English [laughs]. So I was brought up here but never really felt I always fitted in. It was only when I started travelling around I realised why my father was so culturally very different to those around me."
https://seenandheard-international.com/2013/09/newjohn-daszak-genesis-of-a-new-british-siegfried-an-interview-with-jim-pritchard

Hitler's Ukrainian SS division was created from the merger of many different units, including the Nightingale battalion, said to have participated in the massacre of thousands of Jews in Lvov, Ukraine, and the Ukrainian Self Defence Legion, accused of murdering villagers in eastern Poland. Some Galizien troops are said to have played a part in the bloody suppression of the 1944 Warsaw uprising, while others are alleged to have murdered a number of British and American airmen who were being sheltered by partisans in Slovakia. Few people noticed when they arrived in Britain in May 1947: one Labour MP, Barnett Janner, complained bitterly in the Commons that members of the Galizien division "murdered hundreds of people in cold blood", while a solitary letter in the London Evening News, signed with the correspondent's concentration camp number, 3399, complained that he or she had witnessed first-hand the "brutal, uncouth and bloodthirsty" behaviour of Ukrainian guards. Most newspapers devoted just one paragraph to reporting the division's arrival, however. The men were dispersed among PoW camps. Over the next three years just eight "undesirables" were deported to Germany, while some emigrated to Canada, the US or Argentina.

JOHN DASZAK


DASZAK COMPARES ARTISTS TO SERIAL KILLERS

The Artist as Serial Killer Authors Peter Daszak, Yasha Feferholtz Publication date 2018/6/1 Journal EcoHealth Description: "Writing an essay about a piece of art is a bit like investigating a murder scene. The artist leaves us clues as to their intent—hints of greater meaning that are necessarily covered with multiple layers of deception and trickery. As the artist produces each opus, these clues add together to form the theme of the artist’s life work, just as a serial killer lays out a pattern, knowingly or unwittingly, at the scenes of each of their crimes. These clues may be explicit: Picasso’s gradual breakdown of the face into a series of abstract shapes; Rousseau’s juxtaposition of nature with modern life to reflect our primordial fear of nature and human origins, culminating in the magnificent The Dream—his last painting. They may be subtle and hidden; a challenge for the viewer to decipher, or a test of our intellectual capacity to identify what the artist has hidden for us."


EDUCATION

DASZAK WASN'T MATERIAL FOR OXFORD OR CAMBRIDGE

Peter Daszak is not a medical doctor or microbiologist but merely holds a B.Sc. in Zoology in 1987 at University College of North Wales (UCNW), AKA Bangor University. Bangor is ranked #601-650 in QS Global World Rankings 2021 and 61st in the United Kingdom. Daszak earned a Ph.D. in parasitic infectious diseases in 1994 at University of East London. One would think he would return to graduate school to attain a degree in microbiology or infectious diseases but he lacks the mental capacity.

DASZAK INTERVIEW DECEMBER 2019

Q. How did you become involved in zoology?

A. I was always interested in nature as a kid so I wanted to do zoology ever since I was eight years old I wanted to be a zoologist and I was on that truck. I did a zoology degree. I was going to work. I'm a reptile fan. I wanted to work on reptiles and then in England you have in your third year, you have to pick a research project, and I was late to the table and the only one left on reptiles was no good behavior stuff. It was ultra structure of a parasite in a lizard's gallbladder. I'll do it anyway but it was it was so fascinating I just got hooked on research. I got hooked on seeing something for the first time and getting a result that tells you something that no one else has seen it. I found that fascinating. I got a PhD in a similar field. I got a PhD in coccidiosis now that was the parasite.

Q. Where did you do that?

A. In England, in London, near University of East London.

Q. Okay and did you do a postdoc after that?

A. Yeah I did a couple of postdocs. It was in a pretty bad time in England. There were one year postdocs and kept getting refunded but it's not great support.

Q. What areas were they in?

A. Similar stuff parasitology. I was a sort of general because I could do what from across Coupee(?) I volunteered at CDC and it was during the Nipah virus outbreak and I was in the lab doing electronic respond the first samples.

PETER DASZAK IS NOT A MICROBIOLOGIST OR MEDICAL DOCTOR. HE IS ZOOLOGIST WHOSE FINANCING OF CHINESE GAIN-OF-THREAT EXPERIMENTS WENT SOUR AND CAUSED A PANDEMIC
https://www.ecohealthalliance.org/personnel/dr-peter-daszak

DASZAK'S INFLATED C.V.

  • Dr. Daszak is a member of the National Academy of Medicine and Chair of the NASEM’s Forum on Microbial Threats but is not a Microbiologist.

  • He claims he is a member of the NRC Advisory Committee to the US Global Change Research Program but he is not listed as such.https://www.globalchange.gov/about/organization

  • He claims he is on the Supervisory Board of the One Health Platform https://www.onehealthcommission.org/en/leadership__board_of_directors/council_of_advisors although he is not listed.

  • The CEEZAD External Advisory Board

  • The Cosmos Club, Daszak spoke at the Cosmos club but is not a member https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Cosmos_Club_members

  • Advisory Council of the Bridge Collaborative. He is listed as such in 2017 http://bridgecollaborativeglobal.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Bridge-Collaborative-Call-to-Action-2017.pdf

  • He has served on the Institute of Medicine Committee on global surveillance for emerging zoonoses. He was a speaker there not a member of the institute He was a speaker there not a member of the institute

  • NRC committee on the future of veterinary research, but is not a veterinarian

  • International Standing Advisory Board of the Australian Biosecurity CRC; [NO TRACES]

  • Advised the Director for Medical Preparedness Policy on the White House National Security Staff on global health issues. [What year? What was his / her name?]

  • Dr. Daszak is a regular advisor to WHO on pathogen prioritization for R&D. He headed the WHO delegation that covered up his crime. He was doing this on behalf of himself and China and double-crossing CIA AID and the Pentagon that funded him.

  • Dr. Daszak won the 2000 CSIRO medal for collaborative research on the discovery of amphibian chytridiomycosis. Daszak's Major Discovery involved fungus not virus https://www.nytimes.com/1998/06/28/us/newly-found-fungus-is-tied-to-vanishing-species-of-frog.html

    "A newly discovered fungus appears to be the cause of an epidemic among amphibians that is killing off frogs and toads of a wide variety of declining species in rain forests in Australia and Central America, according to a new report by an international team of researchers. Scientists say the new study may help solve the mystery of why amphibians are vanishing around the world, often from pristine, isolated habitats. ''It's one thing to go and look for frogs and say they're gone, but what we needed were the bodies to work on,'' said Dr. Peter Daszak, parasitologist at Kingston University in England and an author of the report. Now, with all the carcasses at their disposal, he said, ''at last we seem to be getting somewhere.''
    https://www.nytimes.com/1998/06/28/us/newly-found-fungus-is-tied-to-vanishing-species-of-frog.html

  • EHA institutional lead for USAID-EPT-PREDICT. [This was one of Daszak's major hustles that turned sour like a crime that went so terribly wrong it created a pandemic. Not only was there any advancements in predicting pandemics, but money was diverted to Wuhan Institute of Virology that created Covid-19.]

  • Editorial Board of Conservation Biology, One Health, GeoHealth, One Health Outlook,

  • Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene,

  • Editor-in-Chief of the journal Ecohealth. True.

  • Authored over 300 scientific papers and was listed as a Web of Science Highly Cited Researcher in 2018.

  • National Academy of Medicine and Chair of the NASEM’s Forum on Microbial Threats NEW YORK – October 15, 2018 – At its annual meeting Monday, the National Academy of Medicine announced the election of EcoHealth Alliance President Dr. Peter Daszak as a new member. Dr. Daszak is one of 85 new members announced at the meeting.

  • (ICSU) 04-06 June 2007 – Beijing, China A Larigauderie (Executive Director DIVERSITAS), P Daszak (Treasurer SC-DIVERSITAS) and M Donoghue (cochair bioGENESIS) met with a delegation of Chinese scientists and officials, led by Prof. Le Kang, to discuss the possibility for China to host an Asian consultation on IMoSEB.
    http://www.diversitas-international.org/resources/publications/newsletters-1/DIVERSITAS_NL_7.pdf


  • His work has been the focus of extensive media coverage, ranging from press articles in The New York Times, the Wall Street Journal, The Economist, The Washington Post, US News & World Report, and broadcast appearances on 60 Minutes, CNN, ABC, NPR’s Talk of the Nation, Science Friday, and Fresh Air with Terry Gross. [This is true - he is a creation of the liberal media who portray him as a hero.]




    AFTER IT WAS BANNED IN THE U.S. DASZAK OUTSOURCED GAIN OF FUNCTION (GoF) / GAIN OF THREAT (GoT) EXPERIMENTS TO THE WUHAN INSTITUTE OF VIROLOGY (WIV) WHERE COVID-19 WAS CREATED BY MAKING A SARS VIRUS MORE PATHOGENIC THROUGH GENETIC ENGINEERING

    Read this paper by Daszak: "This summary contains the information for the 2014 and 2017 NIH grants to the Ecohealth Alliance that funded the Wuhan Institute for Virology (WIV) research on bat conronaviruses. As the grant description shows, this research included gain of function/gain of threat research to make coronaviruses viruses more pathogenic using techniques including genetic engineering, cell culture, and animal experimentation." Covid-references-International Center for Technology Assessment

    EXPERIMENTS WERE CONDUCTED WITH HORSESHOE BATS THAT CARRY A CLOSE RELATIVE TO SARS-CoV

    Yuan KY et al1 assayed 13 different species of bats, 5 different species of rodents and 20 rhesus macaques. The results proved that SARS-CoV in bats was the most closely related to that in humans. In this assay, the SARS-like CoV in Chinese horseshoe bats has 88%-92% sequence homology with human SARS-CoV. Moreover, the S2 m motif in its 3'UTRs and the phylogenetic analyses of four fully characterized genomes of SARS-like CoV indicated that the horseshoe bats have great potential to be one of the natural reservoirs. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/ame2.12017

    THE GAIN-OF-THREAT EXPERIMENTS WERE NOT EFFECTUATED IN A LABORATORY DESIGNED FOR EXPERIMENTS WITH DISEASES THAT HAVE NO CURE: SHI ZHENG LI Q. & A.



    COVID-19 HAS NOT YET BEEN FOUND IN NATURE

    COVID-19 has NOT been found in an intermediate species. But Daszak insisits the virus jumped from an intermediate species to humans to cover up the fact that the virus was financed by Eco-Health Alliance and created by The Bat Lady. COVID-19 leaked out of the Wuhan Institute of Virology when someone there became contaminated and didn't know it due to the viruses incubation period. Daszak used the CIA / USAID / PENTAGON money he didn't pocket to fund the project that was supposed to predict a SARS like viral emergence. His "PREDICT” scam entailed financing GAIN OF FUNCTION (GoF) / GAIN OF THREAT (GoT) experiments so scientists could develop a vaccine before an outbreak. The Junk Science GoF / GoT was OUTSOURCED to the BAT LADY SHI ZHENG LI at the WIV after Obama deemed it too dangerous to conduct these experiments in the USA as it might caUse a pandemic.

    PROXIMITY

    Microbiologist Jonathan Latham says not only are there clear reasons to doubt that the wet market was the source, but it also requires you to accept the most staggering coincidence. After all, given that wet markets are widespread in China – indeed across much of Asia, how remarkable is it that the virus’s zoonotic leap from animal to human just happened to take place in one that has a lab under 300 meters away, and another within 10 kilometres, that is researching not just bat coronaviruses, but the most closely related ones to the outbreak?


    CHRONOLOGY OF GAIN-OF-FUNCTION / GAIN-OF-THREAT EXPERIMENTS WITH BAT VIRUSES CULMINATING IN THE CREATION OF SARS-CoV-2

    DECEMBER 2006 DASZAK AND THE BAT LADY

    DECEMBER 2006 Shi Zheng Li a researcher at Wuhan Institute of Virology co-authors an “Emerging Infectious Diseases” article with Peter Daszak describing whole-genome sequences of two novel bat coronaviruses from Chinese horseshoe bats that target the ACE2 receptor, just like SARS-CoV-2. A Shi Zheng Li and Daszak paper.

    2007 DIFFERENCE IN RECEPTOR USAGE BETWEEN SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME (SARS) CORONAVIRUS AND SARS-LIKE CORONAVIRUS OF BAT ORIGIN

    A group of SARS-like CoVs (SL-CoVs) has been identified in horseshoe bats. SL-CoVs and SARS-CoVs share identical genome organizations and high sequence identities, with the main exception of the N terminus of the spike protein (S), known to be responsible for receptor binding in CoVs. In this study, we investigated the receptor usage of the SL-CoV S by combining a human immunodeficiency virus-based pseudovirus system with cell lines expressing the ACE2 molecules of human, civet, or horseshoe bat. In addition to full-length S of SL-CoV and SARS-CoV, a series of S chimeras was constructed by inserting different sequences of the SARS-CoV S into the SL-CoV S backbone. Several important observations were made from this study. First, the SL-CoV S was unable to use any of the three ACE2 molecules as its receptor. Second, the SARS-CoV S failed to enter cells expressing the bat ACE2. Third, the chimeric S covering the previously defined receptor-binding domain gained its ability to enter cells via human ACE2, albeit with different efficiencies for different constructs. Fourth, a minimal insert region (amino acids 310 to 518) was found to be sufficient to convert the SL-CoV S from non-ACE2 binding to human ACE2 binding, indicating that the SL-CoV S is largely compatible with SARS-CoV S protein both in structure and in function. The significance of these findings in relation to virus origin, virus recombination, and host switching is discussed.
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2258702

    The three most important phrases in this abstract as they relate to SARS-CoV-2 are: "First, the SL-CoV S was unable to use any of the three ACE2 molecules as its receptor." Second "We investigated the receptor usage of the SL-CoV S by combining a human immunodeficiency virus-based pseudovirus system with cell lines expressing the ACE2 molecules of human, civet, or horseshoe bat" "Third, the chimeric S covering the previously defined receptor-binding domain gained its ability to enter cells via human ACE2" In layman’s terms: We found this SARS-like virus ("S") that couldn’t infect human cells. So, we combined S with parts of HIV, which does infect human cells, to see if this new S could infect human cells. The new S ("chimeric S") can infect human cells. We find that WIV was involved in this study in the Materials and Methods section: "Materials and Methods A MAb against p24 of HIV was generated by the HIV group of the Wuhan Institute of Virology (unpublished results). Rabbit polyclonal antibodies against ACE2 of the bat R. pearsonii (RpACE2) was generated using a recombinant RpACE2 protein expressed in Escherichia coli at our laboratory at the Wuhan Institute of Virology, following standard procedures. All 10 scientists who are associated with this paper are also associated with the Wuhan Institute of Virology. From the paper’s Author Information tab:

    A prophetic paragraph appears in the Discussion Section: "Considering the documented observations of coinfection of the same bat species by different CoVs, the same CoVs infecting different bat species, the high density of bat habitats, and the propensity for genetic recombination among different CoVs, it is not unreasonable to conclude that bats are a natural mixing vessel for the creation of novel CoVs and that it is only a matter of time before some of them cross species barriers into terrestrial mammal and human populations. The findings presented in this study serve as the first example of host switching achievable for G2b CoVs under laboratory conditions by the exchange of a relatively small sequence segment among these previously unknown CoVs. The papers referenced in this paragraph are provided below: - Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-like virus in Chinese horseshoe bats - Bats are natural reservoirs of SARS-like coronaviruses - Prevalence and genetic diversity of coronaviruses in bats from China. Multiple coronaviruses can infect the same bat (coinfection) Those same viruses can infect different kinds of bats. There’s a lot of bats everywhere. Coronaviruses like to mix their genes together (recombinate). If two coronaviruses infect the same bat and recombinate, they can potentially result in a novel (never before recognized) coronavirus. It only takes a few changes ("exchange of a relatively small sequence segment") between two coronaviruses to result in a third coronavirus that can infect other animals ("host-switching").

    The odds of this happening are pretty good! Indeed, as we know now, the odds were pretty good. Of course, what we don’t know is whether this spillover event happened in the wild (currently unproven) or in the WIV (this paper proves that they have successfully done it before, in this very location). https://project-evidence.github.io/

    OCTOBER 2013 BATS AS ANIMAL RESERVOIRS FOR THE SARS CORONAVIRUS: HYPOTHESIS PROVED AFTER 10 YEARS OF VIRUS HUNTING VIROLOGICA SINICA 28 (6)

    Extended ORF8 Gene Region Is Valuable in the Epidemiological Investigation of SARS-similar Coronavirus

    OCTOBER 30, 2013 SHI ZHENGLI and PETER DASZAK team up again to author a Nature article, entitled Isolation and characterization of a bat SARS-like coronavirus that uses the ACE2 receptor — offering strongest evidence to date that Chinese horseshoe bats are natural reservoirs of SARS-CoV.30 October 2013 The team led by Dr. Zhengli Shi from Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Dr. Peter Daszak from Ecohealth Alliance identified SL-CoVs in Chinese horseshoe bats that were 95% identical to human SARS-CoV and were able to use human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor for docking and entry. Remarkably, they isolated the first known live bat SL-CoV that replicates in human and related cells. Their findings provide clear evidence that some SL-CoVs circulating in bats are capable of infecting and replicating in human (Ge X Y, et al., 2013).
    Bats as animal reservoirs for the SARS coronavirus Hypothesis proved after 10 years of virus hunting

    SARS-LIKE WIV1-COV POISED FOR HUMAN EMERGENCE

    NOVEMBER 9, 2015 Two Wuhan Institute of Virology scientists, Xing-Yi Ge and Shi Zhengli, use reverse genetics to generate a chimeric virus (one that has been created by combining cells of more than one distinct genotype) closely resembling the novel coronavirus Covid-19: “On the basis of these findings, we synthetically re-derived an infectious full-length SHC014 recombinant virus and demonstrate robust viral replication both in vitro and in vivo.” The Nature Medicine article also mentions, “Human lungs for HAE cultures were procured under University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Institutional Review Board–approved protocols.” Shi joined with an American researcher, Ralph Baric of University of North Carolina, to generate an artificial coronavirus (a chimera), SHC014-MA15, by recombining a SARS coronavirus extracted from an infected mouse as backbone and a section of genome representing the Spike-protein of the SARS-like coronavirus, SHC014, which Shi's colleague found in 2012. This chimera were tested in vitro (test tube) and in vivo (live animals) and showed that it was capable of viral replication and could cause "robust refection to human airway culture and mice, particularly aggressive to aged mice."

    ABSTRACT: Bats harbor severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-like coronaviruses (SL-CoVs) from which the causative agent of the 2002-2003 SARS pandemic is thought to have originated. However, despite the fact that a large number of genetically diverse SL-CoV sequences have been detected in bats, only two strains (named WIV1 and WIV16) have been successfully cultured in vitro. These two strains differ from SARS-CoV only in containing an extra open reading frame (ORF) (named ORFX), between ORF6 and ORF7, which has no homology to any known protein sequences. In this study, we constructed a full-length cDNA clone of SL-CoV WIV1 (rWIV1), an ORFX deletion mutant (rWIV1-X), and a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing mutant (rWIV1-GFP-X). Northern blotting and fluorescence microscopy indicate that ORFX was expressed during WIV1 infection. A virus infection assay showed that rWIV1-X replicated as efficiently as rWIV1 in Vero E6, Calu-3, and HeLa-hACE2 cells. Further study showed that ORFX could inhibit interferon production and activate NF-B. Our results demonstrate for the first time that the unique ORFX in the WIV1. Lei-Ping Zeng,a Yu-Tao Gao, Xing-Yi Ge, Qian Zhang, a Cheng Peng, Xing-Lou Yang, a Bing Tan, Jing Chen, Aleksei A. Chmura, Peter Daszak, Zheng-Li Shia Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China; EcoHealth Alliance, New York, New York, USA https://www.ecohealthalliance.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/Zeng-etal_Bat-SARSlike_2016.pdf

    DECEMBER 2015 EARLY SARS VIRUS RESEARCH WAS GAIN-OF-FUNCTION / GAIN-OF-THREAT RESEARCH SPONSORED BY DASZAK AND CARRIED OUT BY SHI ZHENGLI AND RALPH BARIC

    The emergence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)-CoV underscores the threat of cross-species transmission events leading to outbreaks in humans. In this study, we examine the disease potential for SARS like CoVs currently circulating in Chinese horseshoe bat populations. Utilizing the SARS-CoV infectious clone, we generated and characterized a chimeric virus expressing the spike of bat coronavirus SHC014 in a mouse adapted SARS-CoV backbone. The results indicate that group 2b viruses encoding the SHC014 spike in a wild type backbone can efficiently utilize multiple ACE2 receptor orthologs, replicate efficiently in primary human airway cells, and achieve in vitro titers equivalent to epidemic strains of SARS-CoV. Additionally, in vivo experiments demonstrate replication of the chimeric virus in mouse lung with notable pathogenesis. Evaluation of available SARS-based immune-therapeutic and prophylactic modalities revealed poor efficacy; both monoclonal antibody and vaccine approaches failed to neutralize and protect from CoVs utilizing the novel spike protein. Importantly, based on these findings, we synthetically rederived an infectious full length SHC014 recombinant virus and demonstrate robust viral replication both in vitro and in vivo. Together, the work highlights a continued risk of SARS-CoV reemergence from viruses currently circulating in bat populations

    SARS-LIKE-CLUSTER-OF-CIRCULATING-BAT-CORONAVIRUSES-SHOWS-POTENTIAL-FOR-HUMAN-EMERGENCE

    MARCH 14, 2016 The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV highlights the continued risk of cross-species transmission leading to epidemic disease. This manuscript describes efforts to extend surveillance beyond sequence analysis, constructing chimeric and full-length zoonotic coronaviruses to evaluate emergence potential. Focusing on SARS-like virus sequences isolated from Chinese horseshoe bats, the results indicate a significant threat posed by WIV1-CoV. Both full-length and chimeric WIV1-CoV readily replicated efficiently in human airway cultures and in vivo, suggesting capability of direct transmission to humans. In addition, while monoclonal antibody treatments prove effective, the SARS-based vaccine approach failed to confer protection. Together, the study indicates an ongoing threat posed by WIV1-related viruses and the need for continued study and surveillance. https://www.pnas.org/content/113/11/3048

    FEBRUARY 22, 2017 The Wuhan Institute of Virology, China’s first BIOSAFETY LEVEL-4 LAB (BSL-4), is certified to work on the most dangerous pathogens. Observes Nature, “But worries surround the Chinese lab, too. The SARS virus has escaped from high-level containment facilities in Beijing multiple times.” The Wuhan Institute of Virology is the only BSL-4 virology lab in China staffed with two Chinese virologists, SHI ZHENGLI and Xing-Yi Ge, who both previously worked at a University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill lab, which had already bio-engineered an incredibly virulent strain of bat coronavirus. NOTE: The GoF/GoT experiments were carried out in a BSL-3 and BSL-2 Lab.

    NOVEMBER 30, 2017 As Nature breathlessly tells it, “After a detective hunt across China, researchers chasing the origin of the deadly SARS virus have finally found their smoking gun. In a remote cave in Yunnan province, virologists have identified a single population of horseshoe bats that harbours virus strains with all the genetic building blocks of the one that jumped to humans in 2002, killing almost 800 people around the world.” That report was based on an article, entitled, “Discovery of a rich gene pool of bat SARS-related coronaviruses provides new insights into the origin of SARS coronavirus,” published in San Francisco-based “PLOS Pathogens’ and jointly funded by National Natural Science Foundation of China. And wielding the smoking gun, besides a cast of usual suspects (Xing-Yi Ge and PETER DASZAK ) was none other than SHI ZHENGLI (Zhengli Shi in Chinese), a virologist who is often called China’s “bat woman” by her colleagues because of her virus-hunting expeditions in bat caves over the past 16 years. FEBRUARY 3, 2020 Since the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) 18 years ago, a large number of SARS-related coronaviruses (SARSr-CoVs) have been discovered in their natural reservoir host, bats. Previous studies have shown that some bat SARSr-CoVs have the potential to infect humans5–7. Here we report the identification and characterization of a new coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which caused an epidemic of acute respiratory syndrome in humans in Wuhan, China. The epidemic, which started on 12 December 2019, had caused 2,794 laboratory-confirmed infections including 80 deaths by 26 January 2020. Full-length genome sequences were obtained from five patients at an early stage of the outbreak. The sequences are almost identical and share 79.6% sequence identity to SARS-CoV. Furthermore, we show that 2019-nCoV is 96% identical at the whole-genome level to a bat coronavirus. Pairwise protein sequence analysis of seven conserved non-structural proteins domains show that this virus belongs to the species of SARSr-CoV. In addition, 2019-nCoV virus isolated from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of a critically ill patient could be neutralized by sera from several patients. Notably, we confirmed that 2019-nCoV uses the same cell entry receptor—angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2)—as SARS-CoV. Characterization of full-length genome sequences from patients infected with a new coronavirus (2019-nCoV) shows that the sequences are nearly identical and indicates that the virus is related to a bat coronavirus."/>

    MAY 2020 Origin and cross-species transmission of bat coronaviruses in China Alice Latinne, Ben Hu, Kevin J. Olival, Guangjian Zhu, Libiao Zhang, Hongying Li, Aleksei A. Chmura, Hume E. Field, Carlos Zambrana-Torrelio, Jonathan H. Epstein, Bei Li, Wei Zhang, Lin-Fa Wang, Zheng-Li Shi, Peter Daszak DOI: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.05.31.116061 This article is a preprint and has not been certified by peer review.

    DR. RICHARD EBRIGHT OPPOSES GoF EXPERIMENTS

    https://www.nature.com/news/engineered-bat-virus-stirs-debate-over-risky-research-1.18787?WT.mc_id=TWT_NatureNewsT

    http://www.phe.gov/s3/dualuse/Documents/gain-of-function.pdf

    OXFORD UNIVERSITY PUBLICATION NATURE "ENGINEERED BAT VIRUS STIRS DEBATE OVER RISKY RESEARCH: LAB-MADE CORONA VIRUS RELATED TO SARS CAN INFECT HUMAN CELLS"

    "Editors’ note, March 2020: We are aware that this story is being used as the basis for unverified theories that the novel coronavirus causing COVID-19 was engineered. There is no evidence that this is true; scientists believe that an animal is the most likely source of the coronavirus. November 20, 2015 In the version of this article initially published online, the authors omitted to acknowledge a funding source, USAID-EPT-PREDICT funding from EcoHealth Alliance, to Z.-L.S. The error has been corrected for the print, PDF and HTML versions of this article."

    DECLAN BUTLER

    "Declan Butler November 12, 2015 An experiment that created a hybrid version of a bat coronavirus — one related to the virus that causes SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) — has triggered renewed debate over whether engineering lab variants of viruses with possible pandemic potential is worth the risks. In an article published in Nature Medicine1 on November 9, 2015, scientists investigated a virus called SHC014, which is found in horseshoe bats in China. The researchers created a chimaeric virus, made up of a surface protein of SHC014 and the backbone of a SARS virus that had been adapted to grow in mice and to mimic human disease. The chimaera infected human airway cells — proving that the surface protein of SHC014 has the necessary structure to bind to a key receptor on the cells and to infect them. It also caused disease in mice, but did not kill them. Although almost all coronaviruses isolated from bats have not been able to bind to the key human receptor, SHC014 is not the first that can do so. In 2013, researchers reported this ability for the first time in a different coronavirus isolated from the same bat population. The findings reinforce suspicions that bat coronaviruses capable of directly infecting humans (rather than first needing to evolve in an intermediate animal host) may be more common than previously thought, the researchers say. But other virologists question whether the information gleaned from the experiment justifies the potential risk. Although the extent of any risk is difficult to assess, Simon Wain-Hobson, a virologist at the Pasteur Institute in Paris, points out that the researchers have created a novel virus that “grows remarkably well” in human cells. “If the virus escaped, nobody could predict the trajectory,” he says. CREATION OF A CHIMAERA The argument is essentially a rerun of the debate over whether to allow lab research that increases the virulence, ease of spread or host range of dangerous pathogens — what is known as ‘gain-of-function’ research. In October 2014, the US government imposed a moratorium on federal funding of such research on the viruses that cause SARS, influenza and MERS (Middle East respiratory syndrome, a deadly disease caused by a virus that sporadically jumps from camels to people). The latest study was already under way before the US moratorium began, and the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) allowed it to proceed while it was under review by the agency, says Ralph Baric, an infectious-disease researcher at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, a co-author of the study. The NIH eventually concluded that the work was not so risky as to fall under the moratorium, he says. But Wain-Hobson disapproves of the study because, he says, it provides little benefit, and reveals little about the risk that the wild SHC014 virus in bats poses to humans." https://www.nature.com/news/engineered-bat-virus-stirs-debate-over-risky-research-1.18787

    RALPH S. BARIC

    "Other experiments in the University of North Carolina study show that the virus in wild bats would need to evolve to pose any threat to humans — a change that may never happen, although it cannot be ruled out. Baric and his team reconstructed the wild virus from its genome sequence and found that it grew poorly in human cell cultures and caused no significant disease in mice. “The only impact of this work is the creation, in a lab, of a new, non-natural risk,” agrees RICHARD EBRIGHT, a molecular biologist and biodefence expert at Rutgers University in Piscataway, New Jersey. Both Ebright and Wain-Hobson are long-standing critics of gain-of-function research. In their paper, the study authors also concede that funders may think twice about allowing such experiments in the future. "Scientific review panels may deem similar studies building chimeric viruses based on circulating strains too risky to pursue," they write, adding that discussion is needed as to "whether these types of chimeric virus studies warrant further investigation versus the inherent risks involved”.

    SCIENTISTS INVOLVED IN UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA VIRUS CREATION: XING-YI GE AND ZHENGLI-LI SHI https://www.nature.com/articles/nm.3985

    RON FOUCHIER, EARLY GAIN-OF-THREAT MAD SCIENTIST CREATED AN AVIAN FLU VIRUS THAT COULD INFECT HUMANS

    GAIN-OF-FUNCTION / GAIN-OF-THREAT research is when scientists purposefully cause mutations that give viruses’ new abilities in an attempt to make them more deadly pathogens. Ron Fouchier, who created an Avian Flu virus that could infect humans, says: "Flu viruses are basically eight pieces of RNA wrapped up in a ball. To create the gain-of-threat mutations, the research used a DNA template for each piece, called a plasmid. Making a single mutation in the plasmid is easy and it's commonly done in genetics labs. If you insert all eight plasmids into a mammalian cell, they hijack the cell's machinery to create flu virus RNA. Now you can start to assemble a new virus particle in that cell. One infected cell is enough to grow many new virus particles — from one to a thousand to a million; viruses are replication machines. And because they mutate so readily during their replication, the new viruses have to be checked to make sure it only has the mutations the lab caused. The virus then goes into the ferrets, passing through them to generate new viruses until, on the 10th generation, it infected ferrets through the air. By analyzing the virus's genes in each generation, they can figure out what exact five mutations lead to H5N1 bird flu being airborne between ferrets. And, potentially, people. The potential for the modified H5N1 strain to cause a human pandemic if it ever slipped out of containment has sparked sharp criticism and no shortage of controversy. Rutgers molecular biologist Richard Ebright told https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2011/11/scientists-brace-media-storm-around-controversial-flu-studies that the research "should never have been done." "When I first heard about the experiments that make highly pathogenic avian influenza transmissible," says Philip Dormitzer, vice president and chief scientific officer of viral vaccines at Pfizer, "I was interested in the science but concerned about the risks of both the viruses themselves and of the consequences of the reaction to the experiments."

    In 2014, in response to researchers' fears and some lab incidents, the federal government imposed a moratorium on all GAIN-OF-FUNCTION / GAIN-OF-THREAT research, freezing the work. https://www.freethink.com/articles/gain-of-function-mutation

    WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION IS IN FAVOR OF SHARING H5N1 VIRUS GAIN-OF-FUNCTION / GAIN-OF-THREAT 2011

    "The World Health Organization has expressed concern that US attempts to block publication of aspects of recent research on the H5N1 avian influenza virus may undermine an international agreement on sharing information on the virus. The research relates to genetic mutations that might increase the virus’s risk of transmission to humans. WHO raised its concerns in a statement released on 30 December 2011 and urged that information gathered through such research be shared in the manner delineated in its pandemic influenza preparedness (PIP) framework which came into effect in May 2011." https://www.bmj.com/content/344/bmj.e30 (Published 04 January 2012)

    WHO concerned that new H5N1 influenza research could undermine the 2011 Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Framework Statement 30 December 2011 The World Health Organization (WHO) takes note that studies undertaken by several institutions on whether changes in the H5N1 influenza virus can make it more transmissible between humans have raised concern about the possible risks and misuses associated with this research. WHO is also deeply concerned about the potential negative consequences. However, WHO also notes that studies conducted under appropriate conditions must continue to take place so that critical scientific knowledge needed to reduce the risks posed by the H5N1 virus continues to increase.
    http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/statements/2011/pip_framework_20111229/en/index.html

    Doing Diligence to Assess the Risks and Benefits of Life Sciences Gain-of-Function Research OCTOBER 17, 2014 Summary: The White House Office of Science and Technology Policy and Department of Health and Human Services today announced that the U.S. Government is launching a deliberative process to assess the potential risks and benefits associated with a subset of life sciences research known as “gain-of-function” studies. https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/blog/2014/10/17/doing-diligence-assess-risks-and-benefits-life-sciences-gain-function-research

    OBAMA BANS GAIN-OF-FUNCTION / GAIN-OF-THREAT RESEARCH IN US OCTOBER 2014

    GAIN-OF-FUNCTION studies, or research that improves the ability of a pathogen to cause disease, help define the fundamental nature of human-pathogen interactions, thereby enabling assessment of the pandemic potential of emerging infectious agents, informing public health and preparedness efforts, and furthering medical countermeasure development. Gain-of-function studies may entail biosafety and biosecurity risks; therefore, the risks and benefits of gain-of-function research must be evaluated, both in the context of recent U.S. biosafety incidents and to keep pace with new technological developments, in order to determine which types of studies should go forward and under what conditions. In light of recent concerns regarding biosafety and biosecurity, effective immediately, the U.S. Government (USG) will pause new USG funding for gain-of-function research on influenza, MERS or SARS viruses, as defined below. This research funding pause will be effective until a robust and broad deliberative process is completed that results in the adoption of a new USG gain-of-function research policy. Restrictions on new funding will apply as follows: New USG funding will not be released for gain-of-function research projects that may be reasonably anticipated to confer attributes to influenza, MERS, or SARS viruses such that the virus would have enhanced pathogenicity and/or transmissibility in mammals via the respiratory route. The research funding pause would not apply to characterization or testing of naturally occurring influenza, MERS, and SARS viruses, unless the tests are reasonably anticipated to increase transmissibility and/or pathogenicity."
    http://www.phe.gov/s3/dualuse/Documents/gain-of-function.pdf

    GAIN-OF-FUNCTION / GAIN-OF-THREAT OUTSOURCED TO WUHAN INSTITUTE OF VIROLOGY 2014-2019 AFTER AMERICA BANS IT AS TOO DANGEROUS

    "The US National Institutes of Health (NIH) funded bat-coronavirus research in the Wuhan Institute of Virology in China to the tune of US$3.7 million, a recent article in the British newspaper Daily Mail revealed. Back in October 2014, the US government had placed a federal moratorium on gain-of-function (GoF) research – altering natural pathogens to make them more deadly and infectious – as a result of rising fears about a possible pandemic caused by an accidental or deliberate release of these genetically engineered monster germs. Like so much of the British tabloid journalism this is only half true. The funding went to an intermediate organization known as ECOHEALTH ALLIANCE. A portion of $3.7 million in grants awarded between 2014 and 2019 by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to EcoHealth Alliance, a global environmental health nonprofit organization, helped fund research at the Wuhan Institute of Virology in China. However, not all of that $3.7 million went to the Wuhan Institute of Virology, and not all of the funding took place under the Obama administration. Approximately $700,000 of the $3.7 million total was approved under Donald Trump." https://asiatimes.com/2020/04/why-us-outsourced-bat-virus-research-to-wuhan..... https://www.snopes.com/fact-check/obama-admin-wuhan-lab-grant

    DR. FRANCIS S. COLLINS

    By Donald G. McNeil Jr. Dec. 19, 2017 Federal officials on Tuesday ended a moratorium imposed three years ago on funding research that alters germs to make them more lethal. Such work can now proceed, said Dr. Francis S. Collins, the head of the National Institutes of Health, but only if a scientific panel decides that the benefits justify the risks. "I'm against funding Chinese research in our country, but I'm sure against funding it in China," Representative Gaetz said. "The NIH [National Institutes of Health] gives a $3.7 million grant to the Wuhan Institute of Virology [and] they then advertise that they need coronavirus researchers and following that, coronavirus erupts in Wuhan."

    TRUMP LIFTS GAIN-OF-FUNCTION / GAIN-OF-THREAT BAN LATE 2017

    Trump paved the way for a new super-virus to emerge even more deadly than SARS Covid-19.

    "On Dec 19, 2017, the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) announced that they would resume funding gain-of-function experiments involving influenza, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. A moratorium had been in place since October, 2014. At the time, the NIH had stated that the moratorium “will be effective until a robust and broad deliberative process is completed that results in the adoption of a new US Government gain-of-function research policy”. This process has now concluded. It was spearheaded by the National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity (NSABB) and led to the development of a new framework for assessing funding decisions for research involving pathogens with enhanced pandemic potential. The release of the framework by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), of which NIH is part, signalled the end of the funding pause." Francis S. Collins, M.D., Ph.D. Director, National Institutes of Health."
    https://www.thelancet.com/journals/laninf/article/PIIS1473-3099(18)30006-9/fulltext

    FINANCING SHI ZHENGLI'S GAIN-OF-FUNCTION / GAIN-OF-THREAT EXPERIMENTS WAS PART OF THE PREDICT PROGRAM AND THAT IS WHY IT WAS SHUT DOWN

    Oct. 25, 2019 In a move that worries many public health experts, the federal government is quietly shutting down a surveillance program for dangerous animal viruses that someday may infect humans. The United Nations Environment Program estimates that a new animal disease that can also infect humans is discovered every four months. Ending the program, experts fear, will leave the world more vulnerable to lethal pathogens like Ebola and MERS that emerge from unexpected places, such as bat-filled trees, gorilla carcasses and camel barns. The end of the program “is definitely a loss,” said Peter Daszak, president of the EcoHealth Alliance, a nonprofit global health organization that received funding from the program. “Predict was an approach to heading off pandemics, instead of sitting there waiting for them to emerge and then mobilizing. That’s expensive."

    TRUMP CUTS OFF FUNDS TO ECOHEALTH ALLIANCE 2020

    "A grant to a New York nonprofit ECOHEALTH ALLIANCE aimed at detecting and preventing future outbreaks of coronaviruses from bats has been canceled by the National Institutes of Health, Politico reports, apparently at the direction of President Donald Trump because the research involved the Wuhan Institute of Virology in China. On April 14, the The Washington Post published a column highlighting State Department cables about concerns regarding safety at the institute."
    https://www.the-scientist.com/news-opinion/nih-cancels-funding-for-bat-coronavirus-research-project-7486

    National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity (NSABB)

    James W. Le Duc, PhD
    Director, Galveston National Laboratory
    Professor, Department of Microbiology and
    Immunology
    University of Texas Medical Branch
    https://osp.od.nih.gov/biotechnology/national-science-advisory-board-for-biosecurity-nsabbl

    "The Education Department has asked the University of Texas System to provide documentation of its dealings with the Chinese laboratory U.S. officials are investigating as a potential source of the coronavirus pandemic. The request for records of gifts or contracts from the Wuhan Institute of Virology and its researcher Dr. Shi Zhengli known for her work on bats, is of a broader department investigation into possible faulty financial disclosures of foreign money by the Texas group of universities. As one of the nation's 14 Bio Safety Level 4 laboratories, the Galveston National Laboratory at UTMB belongs to the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Biodefense Laboratory Network. It has collaborated with more than 70 countries and with scientists from the U.S. and abroad on biosafety and biosecurity, as part of its broad mission to advance global scientific collaboration. While it receives no financial support or gifts from global scientific laboratories, UTMB complies with obligations to report fiduciary relationships as required by statute."
    O'Keeffe, Wall Street Journal 5/1/2020 https://www.wsj.com/articles/u-s-probes-university-of-texas-links-to-chinese-lab-scrutinized-over-coronavirus-11588325401

    NIH REINSTATES ECOHEALTH GRANTS. AUGUST 2020

    HEADLINES READ: HEINOUS! CORONA VIRUS RESEARCHER SHUT DOWN FOR WUHAN-LAB LINK SLAMS NEW FUNDING RESTRICTIONS PETER DASZAK, PRESIDENT OF THE RESEARCH ORGANIZATION ECOHEALTH ALLIANCE, DESCRIBES HOW HE HAS BEEN CAUGHT IN POLITICAL CROSS-HAIRS OVER HIS PARTNERSHIP WITH A VIROLOGY LAB IN CHINA.

    The US National Institutes of Health (NIH) has reinstated a research organization’s multimillion-dollar grant to study how coronaviruses move from bats to people — which it cancelled in a controversial move earlier this year. But as Peter Daszak, the head of the small non-profit organization — EcoHealth Alliance in New York City — found out in early July, the funding can’t be used unless the organization meets what he says are absurd conditions. The demands, detailed in a letter from the NIH, are politically motivated, he says. To carry out its research, EcoHealth Alliance partners with the Wuhan Institute of Virology (WIV) in China, which has been at the centre of unfounded rumours that the COVID-19 pandemic was caused by a coronavirus released from its laboratory. The NIH cancelled EcoHealth Alliance’s grant in April, days after US President Donald Trump told a reporter that the United States would stop funding work at the WIV. EcoHealth Alliance and Daszak have been working with Shi Zhengli, a virologist at the WIV, for more than 15 years. Since 2014, an NIH grant has funded EcoHealth’s research in China, which involves collecting faeces and other samples from bats, and blood samples from people at risk of infection from bat-origin viruses. Scientific studies suggest that the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus most likely originated in bats, and research on the topic could be crucial to identifying other viruses that might cause future pandemics. The WIV is a subrecipient on the grant. The NIH makes seven demands of EcoHealth; these were first reported by the Wall Street Journal this week, and have been viewed by Nature. The agency asks EcoHealth to obtain a vial of the SARS-CoV-2 sample that was used by the WIV to determine the virus’s genetic sequence. It also requests that EcoHealth arranges an inspection of the WIV by US federal officials Daszak calls the demands from the NIH “heinous”, and worries that the funding freeze is delaying vital work to identify and prevent the next pandemic. The NIH declined to comment, saying that the agency does not disclose internal deliberations on a specific grant. In an e-mail to Nature, Shi calls the NIH’s demands “outrageous” and echoes Daszak’s assertions that the agency’s demands are unrelated to the WIV’s collaboration with EcoHealth. Nature spoke with Daszak about being caught in the political cross-hairs.

    How have you been doing since your grant was suspended?

    DASZAK: It’s just a very difficult and disappointing and worrisome time. I’ve lost people that I know to COVID-19. It’s a bat-origin coronavirus. We should have been there trying to find out why this thing emerged. And right now I’m sat in my house, looking out the window, unable to do this work, because the NIH has told us that it’s not appropriate. It’s extremely frustrating.

    What is the aim of the project that’s been affected?

    DASZAK: We have specific aims: to go into rural regions of China to find bat-origin coronaviruses and determine which ones are high risk, then to work with local communities in rural China in five provinces. We target communities that are at high risk for viral ‘spillover’ and see whether they’re getting infected — and then finally see whether people are getting sick from novel coronaviruses.

    How have you responded to the NIH’s letter?

    DASZAK: We’ve written to the NIH and said: we think that this is inappropriate and wrong for the following reasons. Please, allow us to continue this work. But I doubt they’re going to do that right now. The NIH have told us not to work on this project. Obviously, we’re not going to break any NIH rules. But we have an ongoing collaboration, we have data that we’ve gathered over 15 years of working in China — 5 years under a previous grant from the NIH — which haven’t been published yet. So we need to carry on with that work.

    How is your work relevant to the pandemic today?

    We estimate that every single day, somebody in China or in southeast Asia gets infected with a new bat coronavirus. Right now, somebody is walking around, and they might be developing the first signs of a cough from the next COVID. We fully intend to be an organization that helps to prevent the next pandemic. That is our mission.

    The NIH has asked you to obtain a vial of isolated SARS-CoV-2 from the WIV. Did you work on the novel coronavirus during your project?

    The grant isn’t used to fund work on SARS-CoV-2. Our organization has not actually published any data on SARS-CoV-2. We work on bat coronaviruses that are out there in the wild and try to predict what the next one is. We don’t work on sequencing SARS-CoV-2. It’s absurd because it’s absolutely outside the remit of the work we do.

    Your grant has received widespread attention in the past few months. How has that been?

    Conspiracy-theory outlets and politically motivated organizations have made Freedom of Information Act requests on our grants and all of our letters and e-mails to the NIH. We don’t think it’s fair that we should have to reveal everything we do. When you submit a grant, you put in all your best ideas. We don’t want to hand those over to conspiracy theorists for them to publish and ruin and make a mockery of.

    What are you most worried about?

    We’re not a political organization. We’re just trying to do good work to prevent pandemics. We’re feeling the pressure of a very aggressive administration in the US picking fights with a country where we happen to be collaborating. And it turns out that they decided that this issue and our work is going to be one of the angles of attack. That’s extremely unfortunate. The winner in all of this is the virus, and not just this virus — SARS-CoV-2 — but all the other viruses. AUGUST 21 2020 https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-020-02473-4

    ONE OF SEVERAL NEAR FATAL ERRORS THAT TRIGGERED THE GoF / GOT BAN INVOLVED H5N1 INFLUENZA VIRUS

    "As this report was being finalized, CDC leadership was made aware that earlier this year a culture of lowpathogenic avian influenza was unintentionally cross-contaminated at a CDC influenza laboratory with a highly pathogenic H5N1 strain of influenza and shipped to a BSL-3, select-agent laboratory operated by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). The CDC influenza laboratory where this incident occurred is now closed and will not reopen until adequate improvements are put in place. Although CDC is continuing to investigate and review this matter, Attachment A provides current information on the incident and the agency's response." [COMMENT: Most of these accidents involved the shipment of live anthrax bacteria initially believed to be inactivated exposed lab technicians to contamination.]
    https://www.cdc.gov/labs/pdf/Final_Anthrax_Report.pdf


    GAIN OF FUNCTION / GAIN-OF-THREAT RESEARCH INVOLVES CREATION OF RECOMINANT VIRUS IN UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA IN COLLABORATION WITH SCIENTISTS FROM WIV

    NOVEMBER 2015 "Utilizing the SARS-CoV infectious clone, we generated and characterized a chimeric virus [a genetic chimerism or chimera is a single organism composed of cells with more than one distinct genotype] expressing the spike of bat coronavirus SHC014 in a mouse adapted SARS-CoV backbone. The results indicate that group 2b viruses encoding the SHC014 spike in a wild type backbone can efficiently utilize multiple ACE2 [Nearly 20 years ago, when a different coronavirus struck, Michael Farzan and his team figured out how it was getting into human cells: targeting a specific receptor called ACE2 found on certain cells] receptor orthologs, [orthologs are genes in different species that evolved from a common ancestral gene by speciation, and, in general, orthologs retain the same function during the course of evolution] replicate efficiently in primary human airway cells, and achieve in vitro titers [the concentration of an antibody, as determined by finding the highest dilution at which it is still able to cause agglutination [the clumping together in suspension of antigen-bearing cells in the presence of specific antibodies]] of the antigen] equivalent to epidemic strains of SARS-CoV. Additionally, in vivo experiments demonstrate replication of the chimeric virus in mouse lung with notable pathogenesis. Evaluation of available SARS-based immune-therapeutic and prophylactic modalities revealed poor efficacy; both monoclonal antibody and vaccine approaches failed to neutralize and protect from CoVs utilizing the novel spike protein. Importantly, based on these findings, we synthetically rederived an infectious full length SHC014 recombinant virus and demonstrate robust viral replication both in vitro and in vivo. Together, the work highlights a continued risk of SARS-CoV reemergence from viruses currently circulating in bat populations."

    "....While offering preparation against future emerging viruses, this approach must be considered in the context of the US government-mandated pause on GAIN-OF-FUNCTION (GoF) studies. Based on previous models of emergence the creation of chimeric viruses like SHC014-MA15 was not expected to increase pathogenicity. However, while SHC014-MA15 is attenuated relative to parental mouse adapted, equivalent studies examining the wild-type Urbani spike within the MA15 backbone produced no weight loss and replication attenuation. As such, relative to the Urbani Spike-MA15 CoV, SHC014 MA15 constitutes a gain in pathogenesis. Based on these findings, review panels may deem similar studies too risky to pursue as increased pathogenicity in mammalian models cannot be excluded. Coupled with restrictions on mouse adapted strains and monoclonal antibodies generated against escape mutants, research into CoV emergence and therapeutic efficacy may be severely limited moving forward. Together, these data and restrictions represent a crossroads of GAIN-OF-FUNCTION research concerns; the potential to prepare and mitigate future outbreaks must be weighed against the risk of creating more dangerous pathogens. In developing policies moving forward, it is important to consider the value of the data generated by these studies and if they warrant further study or the inherent risks involved. ..Reported studies were initiated after the University of North Carolina Institutional Biosafety Committee approved the experimental protocol: PROJECT TITLE: GENERATING INFECTIOUS CLONES OF BAT SARS-LIKE COVS; LAB SAFETY PLAN ID: 20145741; SCHEDULE G ID: 12279. These studies were initiated prior to the U.S. Government Deliberative Process Research Funding Pause on Selected GAIN-OF-FUNCTION / GAIN-OF-THREAT Research Involving Influenza, MERS, and SARS Viruses and the current manuscript has been reviewed by the funding agency, the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Continuation of these studies have been requested and approved by NIH.

    GAIN-OF-FUNCTION / GAIN-OF-THREAT MADE A COVID-19, THAT OCCURRED IN NATURE, MORE TRANSMITTABLE AND MORE LETHAL

    One indication that this virus was made more deadly and communicable by the Chinese scientists encouraged by Daszak and Fauci is that is doesn't act like any other virus did. It is far more deadly and causes many other symptons other than respiratory disease. It attacks children with a Kawasaki disease - an illness that causes inflammation (swelling and redness) in blood vessels throughout the body. It happens in three phases, and a lasting fever usually is the first sign. The condition most often affects kids younger than 5 years old. National Geographic reports on these weird symptoms but is afraid to even suggest they may be a result of Gain-of-Purpose experiments. Lynne Turner-Stokes, professor of rehabilitation medicine at King’s College, says Covid is a “multi-system disease” which can potentially affect any organ. It causes microvascular problems and clots. Lungs, brain, skin, kidneys and the nervous system may be affected. Neurological symptoms can be mild (headache) or severe (confusion, delirium, coma). Turner-Stokes says it’s uncertain why the illness is sometimes so protracted. One explanation is that the body’s immune system goes into overdrive, with an ongoing reaction. Another is that the symptoms are virus-driven. Either way, she says there can be a “recrudescence of symptomatology”. Or, as she also puts it using more colloquial language, “the whole caboodle comes back.”
    https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/2020/05/kawasaki-stroke-why-coronavirus-weirdest-symptoms-are-only-emerging-now-cvd

    https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/may/15/weird-hell-professor-advent-calendar-covid-19-symptoms-paul-garner

    There is a bidirectional relationship between Covid-19 and diabetes. On the one hand, diabetes is associated with an increased risk of severe Covid-19. On the other hand, new-onset diabetes and severe metabolic complications of preexisting diabetes, including diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolarity for which exceptionally high doses of insulin are warranted, have been observed in patients with Covid-19.1-3 These manifestations of diabetes pose challenges in clinical management and suggest a complex pathophysiology of Covid-19–related diabetes.

    https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMc2018688

    SYMPTOMS OF SARS DID NOT ENTAIL A MYRIAD OF OTHER DISEASES

    In general, SARS begins with a high fever (temperature greater than 100.4°F [>38.0°C]). Other symptoms may include headache, an overall feeling of discomfort, and body aches. Some people also have mild respiratory symptoms at the outset. About 10 percent to 20 percent of patients have diarrhea. After 2 to 7 days, SARS patients may develop a dry cough. Most patients develop pneumonia. https://www.cdc.gov/sars/about/fs-sars.html


    FAUCI'S INVOLVMENT IN CREATING THE PANDEMIC

    FAUCI PROPONENT OF GoF / GoT OPPOSES GoF / BAN IN WASHINGTON POST AND DEFENDS GAIN-OF-FUNCTION / GAIN-OF-THREAT EXPERIMENTS

    "The question is whether benefits of such research outweigh risks. The answer is not simple. A highly pathogenic bird flu virus transmissible in humans could arise in ways not predicted by laboratory studies. And it is not clear whether this laboratory virus would behave in humans as it does in ferrets. Nonetheless, new data provide valuable insights that can inform influenza preparedness and help delineate the principles of virus transmission between species.Given these uncertainties, important information and insights can come from generating a potentially dangerous virus in the laboratory. While the World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and Prevention provide excellent public health surveillance for novel influenza strains, influenza outbreaks still occur suddenly and in unexpected places. The recent H1N1 pandemic exemplifies the problem: In 2009, a new influenza virus emerged. It was shown to have originated from an animal reservoir, and it spread so rapidly that it strained the pharmaceutical industry’s capacity to prepare vaccines fast enough to blunt its spread. We do not fully understand the underlying factors that allow influenza viruses to be transmitted efficiently in humans after they emerge from different species. The ferret transmission studies were intended in part to fill these important gaps in knowledge. Understanding the biology of influenza virus transmission has implications for outbreak prediction, prevention and treatment. In defining the mutations required for mammalian transmission, public health officials are provided with genetic signatures that, like fingerprints, could help scientists more readily identify newly emergent, potentially harmful viruses, track their spread and detect threatening outbreaks. The ability to identify such viruses even a few months faster than by conventional surveillance provides critical time to slow or stop an outbreak. For example, the CDC implements public health protective measures and stockpiles antiviral drugs. Identifying threatening viruses can also facilitate the early stages of manufacturing vaccines that protect against such a virus in advance of an outbreak. In addition, determining the molecular Achilles’ heel of these viruses can allow scientists to identify novel antiviral drug targets that could be used to prevent infection in those at risk or to better treat those who become infected. Decades of experience tells us that disseminating information gained through biomedical research to legitimate scientists and health officials provides a critical foundation for generating appropriate countermeasures and, ultimately, protecting the public health."
    https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/a-flu-virus-risk-worth-taking/2011/12/30/gIQAM9sNRP_story.html

    ANTHONY S. FAUCI'S EXPERIMENTS INVOLVED DURC: DUAL USE RESEARCH OF CONCERN

    "One of the goals of pandemic influenza research is to recognize and anticipate how viruses are evolving in the wild toward a phenotype that is dangerous to humans, thereby staying one step ahead of potential pandemics. In this regard, compelling research questions relevant to global health and pandemic preparedness include determining whether highly pathogenic viruses, such as H5N1, have the ability to mutate and/or reassort with another influenza virus to become readily transmissible by the airborne route among humans. If so,

  • (i) what is the likelihood that such mutations or reassortments will happen in nature?
  • (ii) Is there a genetic signature of such a virus that might be helpful in surveillance?
  • (iii) Would such a virus be highly pathogenic for humans?
  • (iv), would such a virus be sensitive to currently available antiviral drugs and vaccines, or would new ones be necessary?

    "Within this context, global attention has been paid recently to two NIH-funded studies of H5N1 transmissibility and pathogenesis in ferrets. In those studies, H5N1 viruses were made transmissible via respiratory droplets among ferrets by engineering the virus; well-described and published protocols including reverse genetics, reassortment, and passaging of viruses in mammals were used. Manuscripts describing the studies have generated an unprecedented degree of discussion, concern, and disagreement among scientists, as well as the public, regarding whether the experiments should have been performed in the first place and whether they should be published in their entirety. Major sources of concern have been that the results might be used by bioterrorists to harm the public or that the virus might accidentally escape and cause a pandemic."

    "However, whenever one deliberately manipulates a virus or a microbe, it is always possible, at least theoretically, that the research results could be used by bioterrorists to intentionally cause harm, or that an accidental release of a pathogen from a laboratory could inadvertently cause harm. Such research is referred to as “dual-use research,” as the research potentially has both positive and negative applications. A particular subset of dual-use research is referred to as “dual-use research of concern” or DURC. DURC is defined as life sciences research that, on the basis of current understanding, can be reasonably anticipated to provide knowledge, information, products, or technologies that can be directly misapplied to pose a significant threat with broad potential consequences to public health and safety, agricultural crops and other plants, animals, the environment, materiel, or national security (6). If a particular experiment is identified as DURC, that designation does not inherently mean that such research should be prohibited or not widely published. However, it does call for us to balance carefully the benefit of the research to public health, the biosafety and biosecurity conditions under which the research is conducted, and the potential risk that the knowledge gained from such research may fall into the hands of individuals with ill intent. Research that could enhance the transmissibility of H5N1viruses clearly is DURC."

    "In this regard, the question of whether to publish the two H5N1 studies in ferrets has been intensively discussed by an independent federal advisory committee known as the National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity (NSABB). On the basis of their recommendations and other evaluations, the U.S. government agreed that the research is important for the public health and should be published. However, important lessons were learned along the way and, appropriately, triggered an examination of our approach concerning the conduct, oversight, and communication of DURC. In this regard, the U.S. government announced on 29 March 2012 the U.S. Government Policy for Oversight of Life Sciences Dual Use Research of Concern. This policy document outlines, for federal departments and agencies that conduct or fund life sciences research, steps to determine whether projects fall under the definition of DURC, to assess the risks and benefits of these projects, to review them regularly, and to develop risk mitigation plans. In the process of weighing the potential risks and benefits of publishing these two manuscripts, it also became clear that, when possible, it is critical to identify research with DURC potential before the initiation of the project and, certainly, before the results are submitted for publication. Such monitoring in the case of NIH-funded research requires the concerted effort of all involved, including scientists applying for or in receipt of NIH funding and NIH program officials. Additional guidelines will be needed as well to assist biosafety committees in evaluating DURC at the institutions where the research is conducted. Benefits and Risks of Influenza Research: Lessons Learned ANTHONY S. FAUCI, Francis S. Collins
    Science https://science.sciencemag.org/content/336/6088/1522.ful 22 Jun 2012: Vol. 336, Issue 6088, pp. 1522-1523 DOI: 10.1126/science.1224305."

    FAUCI SUPPORTED GAIN-OF-FUNCTION / GAIN-OF-THREAT

    "The Office of the Director (OD) of NIAID determines Institute programs, plans, and policies and provides management, program analysis, and scientific program reporting services to the Institute, as well as scientific leadership, policy guidance, and overall operational and administrative coordination. The OD serves as the chief liaison with the National Institutes of Health (NIH) director, other components of of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), other federal agencies, Congress, professional societies, voluntary health organizations, and other public health groups. It also coordinates the activities of NIAID extramural and intramural divisions.


    THE ECO-HEALTH ALLIANCE

    ECO-HEALTH ALLIANCE SCAM WAS JUST ANOTHER MONEY MAKING OPERATION THAT GOT MILLIONS IN USG GRANTS. DASZAK' ECO-HEALTH ALLIANCE'S OPERATIONS NEED TO BE EXAMINED BY CONGRESS. HIS BOGUS PROGRAMS THAT DIDN'T PREDICT COVID-19 IN FACT IT PRODUCED IT!
    https://www.usaspending.gov/search/? hash=29bacd91b448e1783d9e225844f469c7

    DASZAK'S ECOHEALTH ALLIANCE DIVERTED $600,000 IN GRANTS FROM U.S. NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTHTO THE WIV BETWEEN 2014 AND 2019 TO OUTSOURCE GAIN-OF-FUNCTION / GAIN-OF-THREAT EXPERIMENTS WITH BAT CORONAVIRUSES. IT IS NO CO-INCIDENCE THAT THE VIRUS ORGINATED IN WUHAN https://www.nationalreview.com/news/who-gave-china-veto-power-over-american-scientists-joining-covid-origin-investigation

    GRANTS


    Program Name Amount Spent % of Program Expenses
    USAID Predict Emerging Pandemic Threat (EPTP) $12,569,067 83.4%
    RVF Virus Investigation $1,134,848 7.5%
    Biological Surveillance $679,507 4.5%

    SAM HUSSEINI: PETER DASZAK'S ECOHEALTH ALLIANCE HAS HIDDEN ALMOST $40 MILLION IN PENTAGON FUNDING AND MILITARIZED PANDEMIC SCIENCE

    SAM HUSSEINI


    Posted on

    “Pandemics are like terrorist attacks: We know roughly where they originate and what’s responsible for them, but we don’t know exactly when the next one will happen. They need to be handled the same way – by identifying all possible sources and dismantling those before the next pandemic strikes.”

    This statement was written in the New York Times earlier this year by Peter Daszak. Daszak is the longtime president of the EcoHealth Alliance, a New York-based non-profit whose claimed focus is pandemic prevention. But the EcoHealth Alliance, it turns out, is at the very center of the COVID-19 pandemic in many ways. To depict the pandemic in such militarized terms is, for Daszak, a commonplace. In an Oct. 7 online talk organized by Columbia University’s School of International and Public Affairs, Daszak presented a slide titled “Donald Rumsfeld’s Prescient Speech.”:

    “There are known knowns; there are things we know that we know. There are known unknowns; that is to say, there are things that we know we don’t know. But there are also unknown unknowns – there are things we don’t know we don’t know.” (This Rumsfeld quote is in fact from a news conference.) In the subsequent online discussion, Daszak emphasized the parallels between his own crusade and Rumsfeld’s, since, according to Daszak, the “potential for unknown attacks” is “the same for viruses”. Daszak then proceeded with a not terribly subtle pitch for over a billion dollars. This money would support a fledgling virus hunting and surveillance project of his, the Global Virome Project – a “doable project” he assured watchers – given the cost of the pandemic to governments and various industries.

    Also on the video was Columbia University professor Jeffrey Sachs. Sachs is a former special advisor to the UN, the former head of the Millennium Villages Project, and was recently appointed Chair of the newly-formed EAT Lancet Commission on the pandemic. In September, Sachs’ commission named Daszak to head up its committee on the pandemic’s origins. Daszak is also on the WHO’s committee to investigate the pandemic’s origin. He is the only individual on both committees.

    These leadership positions are not the only reason why Peter Daszak is such a central figure in the COVID-19 pandemic, however. His appointment dismayed many of those who are aware that Daszak’s EcoHealth Alliance funded bat coronavirus research, including virus collection, at the Wuhan Institute for Virology (WIV) and thus could themselves be directly implicated in the outbreak.

    For his part, Daszak has repeatedly dismissed the notion that the pandemic could have a lab origin. In fact, a recent FOIA by the transparency group U.S. Right To Know revealed that Peter Daszak drafted an influential multi-author letter published on February 18 in the Lancet. That letter dismissed lab origin hypotheses as “conspiracy theory.” Daszak was revealed to have orchestrated the letter such as to “avoid the appearance of a political statement.”

    Sachs for his part seemed surprised by Daszak’s depiction of Rumsfeld but Daszak reassured him. “It’s an awesome quote! And yes, it’s Donald Rumsfeld, Jeff, and I know he’s a Republican, but – what a genius!”

    FOLLOWING THE ECOHEALTH ALLIANCE’S MONEY TRAIL TO THE PENTAGON

    Collecting dangerous viruses is typically justified as a preventive and defensive activity, getting ahead of what “Nature” or “The Terrorists” might throw at us. But by its nature, this work is “dual use”. “Biodefense” is often just as easily biowarfare since biodefense and the products of biowarfare are identical. It’s simply a matter of what the stated goals are. This is openly acknowledged [See below] by scientists associated with EcoHealth Alliance when talking about alleged programs in other counties – like Iraq.

    For much of this year, Daszak’s EcoHealth Alliance garnered a great deal of sympathetic media coverage after its $3.7 million five-year NIH grant was prematurely cut when the Trump administration learned that EcoHealth Alliance funded bat coronavirus research at the WIV. The temporary cut was widely depicted in major media as Trump undermining the EcoHealth Alliance’s noble fight against pandemics. The termination was reversed by NIH in late August, and even upped to $7.5 million. But entirely overlooked amid the claims and counter-claims was that far more funding for the EcoHealth Alliance comes from the Pentagon than the NIH.

    To be strictly fair to the media, Daszak’s EcoHealth Alliance obscures its Pentagon funding. On its website EcoHealth Alliance states that “A copy of the EHA Grant Management Manual is available upon request to the EHA Chief Financial Officer at finance ( at ) ecohealthalliance.org”. But an email to that address and numerous others, including Peter Daszak’s, requesting that Manual, as well as other financial information, was not returned. Neither were repeated voicemails. Only buried under their “Privacy Policy,” under a section titled “EcoHealth Alliance Policy Regarding Conflict of Interest in Research,” does the EcoHealth Alliance concede it is the “recipient of various grant awards from federal agencies including the National Institute of Health, the National Science Foundation, US Fish and Wildlife Service, and the US Agency for International Development and the Department of Defense.”

    Even this listing is deceptive. It obscures that its two largest funders are the Pentagon and the State Department (USAID); whereas the US Fish and Wildlife Service, which accounts for a minuscule $74,487, comes before either.

    Meticulous investigation of US government databases reveals that Pentagon funding for the EcoHealth Alliance from 2013 to 2020, including contracts, grants and subcontracts, was just under $39 million. Most, $34.6 million, was from the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), which is a branch of the DOD which states it is tasked to “counter and deter weapons of mass destruction and improvised threat networks.” Most of the remaining money to EHA was from USAID (State Dept.), comprising at least $64,700,000 (1). These two sources thus total over $103 million. (See Fig).

    Summary EHA Grants and Contracts. Note this figure doesn’t count subcontracts so it undercounts USDA’s contribution, see footnote (1) below (Credit: James Baratta and Mariamne Everett)

    Another $20 million came from Health and Human Services ($13 million, which includes National Institutes of Health and Centers for Disease Control), National Science Foundation ($2.6 million), Department of Homeland Security ($2.3 million), Department of Commerce ($1.2 million), Department of Agriculture ($0.6 million), and Department of Interior ($0.3 million). So, total US government funding for EHA to-date stands at $123 million, approximately one third of which comes from the Pentagon directly. The full funding breakdown is available here and is summarized by year, source, and type, in a spreadsheet format.

    Pdf versions of this the spreadsheet are available to download. The summary is here and all Federal grants and contracts are here.

    MORE MILITARY CONNECTIONS

    The military links of the EcoHealth Alliance are not limited to money and mindset. One noteworthy ‘policy advisor’ to the EcoHealth Alliance is David Franz. Franz is former commander of Fort Detrick, which is the principal US government biowarfare/biodefense facility. David Franz was part of UNSCOM which inspected Iraq for alleged bioweapons – what were constantly referred to as WMDs or Weapons of Mass Destruction by the US government and the media. Franz has been one of those eager to state, at least when discussing alleged Iraqi programs, that “in biology … everything is dual use – the people, the facilities and the equipment.” (NPR, May 14, 2003; link no longer available). Just this year Franz wrote a piece with former New York Times journalist Judith Miller, whose stories of Iraqi WMDs did much to misinform the US public regarding the case for the 2003 invasion of Iraq. Their joint article, “A Biosecurity Failure: America’s key lab for fighting infectious disease has become a Pentagon backwater,” urges more funding for Fort Detrick. Miller and Franz are longtime associates. Miller co-wrote the book Germs, released amid the 2001 false flag anthrax attacks, which repeatedly quotes Franz. Miller at the time received a hoax letter with a harmless white powder, increasing her prominence. Franz continued hyping the existence of Iraqi WMDs even after the invasion of Iraq. While she was still with the Times, Miller quoted him in a story “US Analysts Link Iraq Labs To Germ Arms” on May 21, 2003 pushing the theory that Iraq had mobile biological WMD units. (This theory was debunked by the British scientist Dr. David Kelly, who would die, apparently by suicide, soon thereafter.

    Four significant insights emerge from all this. First, although it is called the EcoHealth Alliance, Peter Daszak and his nonprofit work closely with the military. Second, the EcoHealth Alliance attempts to conceal these military connections. Third, through militaristic language and analogies Daszak and his colleagues promote what is often referred to as, and even then somewhat euphemistically, an ongoing agenda known as “securitization“. In this case it is the securitization of infectious diseases and of global public health. That is, they argue that pandemics constitute a vast and existential threat. They minimize the very real risks associated with their work, and sell it as a billion dollar solution. The fourth insight is that Daszak himself, as the Godfather of the Global Virome Project, stands to benefit from the likely outlay of public funds. Acknowledgments Thanks to James Baratta and Mariamne Everett for researching the funding sources.

    Footnote

    1. The figure for EHA’s USAID funding was obtained from the University of California at Davis, a major grantee of PREDICT funds, which EHA has been a major sub-grantee of Davis confirmed that EHA’s funding from PREDICT totaled $64,722,669 (PREDICT-1: 2009 to 2014: $19,943,214; PREDICT-2: 2014 to present (2020) $44,779,455)

    This originally appeared in Independent Science News.

    Sam Husseini is an independent journalist and founder of VotePact.org – which helps break out of the two party bind. His latest personal writings are at http://husseini.posthaven.com/ and tweets at http://twitter.com/samhusseini.

    THE PREDICT PROGRAM WAS A CON JOB AND FAILURE: IT HAS BEEN ALLEGED THAT A LARGE PORTION OF THE GRANT MONEY WAS HIDDEN AWAY BY DASZAK FOR HIS OWN USE

    TAIPEI (Taiwan News) —A report by Independent Science News and a search of U.S. government databases revealed that EcoHealth Alliance received $39 million in funding from the Pentagon from 2013 to 2020. Adding another $64.7 million from USAID, the report found that Daszak's "non-profit organization" has raked in over US$103 million from the U.S. government. Since 2014, Daszak's organization has funneled some of this U.S. government funding into the WIV to carry out research on bat coronaviruses. In the first phase of research, which took place from 2014 to 2019, Daszak coordinated with Shi Zhengli — also known as "Bat Woman" — at the WIV to investigate and catalog bat coronaviruses across China. EcoHealth Alliance received US$3.7 million in funding from the NIH for this research, and 10 percent was channeled to the WIV, reported NPR. The second phase, which started in 2019, involved GAIN-OF-FUNCTION / GAIN-OF-THREAT research on coronaviruses and chimeras in humanized mice from the lab of Ralph S. Baric of the University of North Carolina.

    A report by U.S. Right to Know alleges that emails released through freedom of information requests reveal that Daszak persuaded 26 prominent scientists to sign a statement published in The Lancet on Feb. 19 2020, claiming that any suggestions that COVID-19 was not of natural origin are "conspiracy theories." Four signatories of The Lancet statement are employed by EcoHealth Alliance. Six scientists who signed the statement, including Daszak, now comprise half of The Lancet's panel investigating the origins of the virus.

    A prominent molecular biologist at Rutgers University claims that a member of the World Health Organization (WHO) team investigating the origins of COVID-19 in Wuhan has a conflict of interest, due to his ties with the Wuhan lab at the center of the inquest. British zoologist and the president of EcoHealth Alliance Peter Daszak is the only individual to be part of both the WHO and The Lancet teams investigating the origins of the Wuhan coronavirus pandemic. However, he has long-term professional and financial ties with the Wuhan Institute of Virology (WIV), which represents a conflict of interest. Richard H. Ebright is the Board of Governors Professor of Chemistry and Chemical Biology at Rutgers University, and Laboratory Director at the Waksman Institute of Microbiology. He told Taiwan News that Daszak is the contractor who funded the WIV's research on bat SARS-related coronaviruses, with subcontracts of $200 million in USAID funding and $7 million in NIH funding. Ebright said that Daszak is a collaborator on the WIV research for bat SARS-related coronaviruses. He lamented that the WHO named Daszak as a member of its review team, and The Lancet named Daszak as the head of its review team. Ebright said this makes "it clear that WHO and Lancet reviews cannot be considered credible investigations." In addition to the funding EcoHealth Alliance receives from USAID, NIH, and other agencies, which it funnels into the WIV, Ebright stated the firm received US$30 million from the US Department of Defense. When asked whether Daszak had been involved in the controversial gain-of-function / gain-of threat experiments on bat coronaviruses at the WIV, Ebright said: "Daszak has been a contractor, a collaborator, and a co-author on work at the WIV on construction and analysis of novel chimeric coronaviruses."

    Furthermore, Daszak in 2015 co-authored an article in the journal Nature titled, "Spillover and pandemic properties of zoonotic viruses with high host plasticity," in which he stated that zoonotic virus spillover from wildlife was "most frequent" in a number of settings and occupations, including "laboratory workers." He also warned that laboratories are one of the most dangerous settings for major spillover events. "Among all high risk interfaces and hosts, only viruses transmitted to humans by contact with wild animals in the wildlife trade and in laboratories ... were more likely to have broader geographic reach," Daszak said. Daszak's colleague, SHI ZHENGLI, in 2010 published a paper describing a scenario in which infected rodents led to a deadly virus being leaked from a Chinese lab. The paper, titled, "Hantavirus outbreak associated with laboratory rats in Yunnan, China," detailed an outbreak of hantavirus hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) at a college in Kunming as the result of a lab leak in 2003.

    In a video interview originally recorded on DECEMBER 9, 2019, Daszak mentioned the testing of modified coronaviruses on human cells and humanized mice in the WIV, just weeks before the first cases of COVID-19 were announced in the city of Wuhan, China. Daszak has dismissed the possibility of a lab leak, insisting since the start of the pandemic it's a "conspiracy theory" — without providing evidence for his claim.

    There are dozens and dozens of small spill overs going on on the planet at any one time which we just never see. Sure they never amplify. There are a few cases in there just absorbed in the illness the overall illness of the population right they could say so "who cares?" you know and that's one argument. But our strategy is any one of those could become pandemic there's a lot of stochasticity and what happens then yeah so if we look at all of them understand patterns try and reduce the number of spillover events we've got you know but if you say these are diverse coronaviruses and you can't vaccinate against them they're no antivirals what do we do? Well I think that one of us is a pretty good I mean you're a virologist you know all the stuff they you can manipulate them in the lab pretty easily is just spike protein drives a lot of what happens with the anonymous zoonotic risk so you can get the sequence you can build the protein and we work with Ralph Baric at UNC who do this insert into backbone of another virus right and do do some work in the lab so you can get more predictive when you find a sequence you got this diversity now the the logical progression for vaccines is if you're going to develop a vaccine for SARS people are going to use you know pandemic Sciences near sure but let's try and insert some of these other yeah she related and get a better vaccine and I guess also knowledge of what's there if you see something emerging it give it a head start on making a vaccine or a therapeutic that's true and and you know better knowledge of where they are as well so yeah you can put your money into this clinics that matter and that's one of the big things that we've been trying to push there's a lot of the word predict or the word you know the anticipating forecasting pandemics it doesn't mean you can start them that's the problem there's so what we're trying to say in a global scale if we can show where the most lights come from the species in most lights origin and the people most like to get affected a global actor like WHO our national government can better allocate resources to the highest risk it's very simple so you're doing a lot of activities those are just a few of all the ones you can find.

    Since the start of the pandemic, both Daszak and Shi have denied that a lab leak occurred at the WIV. However, over a year since the outbreak, Shi has yet to provide independent investigators with access to the WIV's database and laboratory records. Daszak has yet to respond to a request to comment on allegations that he has a conflict of interest in the WHO and The Lancet investigations. The WIV has also yet to reply to questions about their experiments in 2019.
    https://www.taiwannews.com.tw/en/news/4119101

  • ECOHEALTH ALLIANCE STAFF AND DUPES

    Nancye Green founded Donovan/Green with Michael Donovan, designing and producing experiences in multiple media for clients as diverse as American Museum of Natural History, California Science Center, Liberty Science Center, IBM, GM, P&G, President Ronald Reagan, Sony and American Girl. Parsons School of Design - The New School Degree Name BFA Field Of Study Environmental Valedictorian of Parsons Graduating Class Tulane University Degree Name BA Field Of Study Political Science. Also see Nancye Green

    David Amburgey. Hand Baldachin & Amburgey LLP

    Dr. Amy Attas Civil Court, City of New York, Claire RATUSCH, Plaintiff, v. Dr. Amy ATTAS d/b/a Center for Veterinary Care, Defendant. Decided: March 26, 2004

    Dr. Frederick Baum Leading the development of a small animal veterinary hospital in rural Vermont towards a progressive state of the art practice network by incorporating advanced veterinary services, IT, human resources, customer service, marketing, strategy, and customer service. Board of Directors, EcoHealth Alliance. Board of Directors to the VIN Foundation in Davis California. Charitable arm of the Veterinarian Information Network (VIN) supporting and uniting over 50,000 veterinarians in transition across the country and around the world.

    Gerard Caddick Founded in 1990, The International Ecotourism Society has been on the forefront of the development of Ecotourism, providing guidelines and standards, training, technical assistance, and educational resources.

    Dr. Rita Colwell Dr. Rita R. Colwell, Ph.D., is a microbiologist and marine scientist. She is active in national and international research and teaching. Much of her research has focused on the effects of bacteria on the Chesapeake Bay, in deep seas, and in recreational waters.

    Dr. Marianne De Backer Marianne De Backer, PhD, MBA Member of the Bayer AG Pharmaceuticals Executive Committee & Executive Vice President and Head of Strategy, Business Development & Licensing Dr. Marianne De Backer has been a strategist, scientist, business leader, deal maker and corporate investor in the healthcare industry for more than two decades. Also see: MARIANNE DE BACKER

    Oliver Engert Since joining McKinsey in 1993, Oliver has worked with top executives in all sectors, pursuing strategic growth and operational performance. He has developed deep expertise in helping pharmaceutical and medical-device companies pursue performance improvement against a backdrop of intense competitive pressure.

    Margery Fischbein Prior to joining Cassel Salpeter, Margery was Head of Healthcare Investment Banking for Seaport Global and FBR & Co., and Head of East Coast Biotechnology Investment Banking for JMP Securities. Margery held senior executive positions with Human Genome Sciences and ImClone Systems, who were leaders in their field until being acquired by GlaxoSmithKline and Eli Lilly and Company, respectively. Margery started her investment banking career at Lehman Brothers (where she rose to Senior Vice President) and was then a Managing Director of Investment Banking at JP Morgan Chase and Citigroup.

    Nancy Griffin Bayer Pharmaceuticals Total Duration 9 yrs Title Alliance Management Dates Employed1998 – 2007 Employment Duration 9 yrs Title Director, Operations Dates Employed 2000 – 2002

    Holly Hegener Chief Operating Officer Dates EmployedMay 2017 – Jan 2020 Trewstar is a search firm that focuses on placing highly-qualified and outstanding women on corporate boards. Over the past three years, we have placed dozens of women on corporate boards representing a diverse set of industries and locations throughout the US. While most of our clients are Fortune 500 companies, we have also done placements for small and mid-cap companies and pre-IPO companies.

    Bob has a BA from Harvard College, an LLB from New York University Law School, and an MBA and a Certificate in Conservation Biology from Columbia University.

    Dr. Patricia Verduin Dr. Patricia Verduin is the Chief Technology Officer for Colgate Palmolive Company where she provides leadership for product innovation, clinical science and long-term research and development. Prior to this role, Dr. Verduin’s career spanned technical leadership positions in the food industry including ConAgra Foods where she was Senior Vice President of Product Quality and Development as well as Nabisco where she held various product development and innovation leadership positions. In addition to industry, Dr. Verduin was the Chief Scientific Officer at the Grocery Manufacturers/Food Products Association. She also holds several patents from her research. Dr. Verduin received her B.S. degree from the University of Delaware and her M.B.A. in Finance from Farleigh Dickinson University. She received her Ph.D. in Food Science from Rutgers University.

    Dr. James Hughes James M. Hughes, M.D., is Professor of Medicine and Public Health at Emory University and Co-Director of the Emory Antibiotic Resistance Center. Prior to joining Emory, he worked for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), initially as an Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) officer and ultimately as Director of the National Center for Infectious Diseases from 1992-2005. Dr. Hughes received his M.D. degree from Stanford University and trained in internal medicine at the University of Washington, infectious diseases at the University of Virginia, and preventive medicine at CDC. He is a member of the National Academy of Medicine (NAM), ViceChair of the NAM Forum on Microbial Threats, and a past president of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA).
    https://www.onehealthcommission.org/documents/filelibrary/leadership/Hughes_Bio_9112016_5F45ACC7C5B34.pdf

    Bob Kuperman Bob Kuperman, has a storied career with more than 40 years of experience creating some of the most historically famous and brand-effective advertising in the U.S. Mr. Kuperman began his career in 1963 at Doyle Dane Bernbach as an Art Director, working on much of their landmark, award-winning advertising, and during his three years as head of the Volkswagen group, created such classics as “1949 Auto Show.” A collection of his Volkswagen ads hangs in the Smithsonian Institution.

    Margaret Loeb McKinsey & Company Total Duration32 yrs 10 mos TitleSenior Advisor Dates EmployedAug 2012 – Present Employment Duration 8 yrs 10 mos Title Director of Client Communications Dates Employed Aug 1988 – Aug 2012 Morgan Stanley Dean Witter CEO Speech Writer Feb 1987 – Jul 1988 The Wall Street Journal Staff Reporter; Editor The Wall Street Journal Dates EmployedNov 1981 – Feb 1987 Tulane University Medill School of Journalism, Northwestern University New School for Social Research. Also see: MARGARET MUNZER LOEB

    Dr. Thomas Lovejoy Thomas E. Lovejoy was elected University Professor at George Mason in March 2010. He previously held the Biodiversity Chair at the Heinz Center for Science, Economics and the Environment and was President from 2002-2008. An ecologist who has worked in the Brazilian Amazon since 1965, he works on the interface of science and environmental policy. He received his B.S. and Ph.D. (Biology) from Yale University.

    Joel A. Maizel Director in Prime Services at Barclays, based in New York. Mr. Maizel is responsible for leading Barclays Capital Solutions efforts for quantitative hedge funds and liquid strategies investors. Maizel holds a Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of Arizona, and a Juris Doctor degree from the Southern Methodist University, Dedman School of Law.

    David McIntyre McIntyre is an attorney with over 25 years of experience, including most recently with Johnson & Johnson where he has served as in-house counsel for over 17 years. He received his JD from Fordham University School of Law, and a BS degree in Biology from Cornell University.

    Lori Michelin Ms. Michelin comes from the Colgate-Palmolive Company, where she led their global sustainability initiatives as the Vice-President of Sustainability and Environmental, Health, and Safety. She received her Master of Science in Civil Engineering from Villanova University and holds a degree in Civil Engineering from Pennsylvania State University. Also see: Lori Michelin

    Ann Moore Ann Moore comes to the organization with 15 years experience as a seasoned events and public relations professional with a diverse background in corporate sales, vendor management, production and talent management. Ms. Moore is currently a special events consultant and continues to provide expertise to high profile clients. Previously, Ms. Moore has produced events for such organizations as the New York City Ballet, The Michael J. Fox Foundation, Jazz at Lincoln Center and the Whitney Museum. Her expertise lies in executing large-scale fundraising galas.

    Mark O'Donnell James McGreevey is best known as the self-described “gay American” who, threatened with blackmail by a lover whom he’d placed on the state payroll, resigned as New Jersey’s governor in 2004. His partner, Mark O’Donnell, is an Australian financier with a taste for modern art and adventure travel. Also see: Mark O'Donnell

    Sheila Patel Sheila Patel, chairman of Goldman Sachs Group Inc.’s asset-management unit, is leaving the $1.8 trillion division after almost two decades at the firm.

    Ellen ShedlarzShedlarz joins Hill & Knowlton from Mercer Delta where she served as chief administrator officer and was responsible for building a human resource function, as well as creating key people management processes. Prior to Mercer Delta, Shedlarz was an administrative partner of McKinsey & Company, responsible for the administration and operations of six locations.

    Lisa Silvershein Ms. Silvershein holds a Bachelor’s degree in Psychology from Dickinson College and a Master’s in Human Resources Management from Upsala College.

    Carlota Vollhardt Carlota has over 25 years of international experience in leadership, consulting, and academic positions based in the US, UK and Germany, and has consulted or led projects in other European countries and in Japan, China and Korea. Prior to launching EKI she held positions of increasing responsibility at Pfizer Inc. in global talent, organizational development, and knowledge management. Also see: Carlota Vollhardt

    Lucy Stitzer Lucy Stitzer chairs Waycrosse, the investment company of the Cargill and MacMillan families, one of the 10 richest clans in America. Stitzer owns an estimated 3% stake in Cargill, the largest food company in the world. She's one of four billionaire sisters who inherited stakes in the company from their father W. Duncan MacMillan, who died in 2006. Her great-great-grandfather, W.W. Cargill, founded the business as a single grain warehouse on the end of an Iowa railroad line in 1865. The family still owns roughly 90% of Cargill, which did $114.6 billion in 2020 sales across food, agriculture, financial and industrial divisions.

    Pamela Thye

    Joel A. Maizel, Ann Moore and Dr. Patricia Verduin

    SCIENTISTS?

    SOME OF USAID/CIA ECO-HEALTH PREDICT CREW

    This Operation is built around the PREDICT program that failed the American people. The scientists involved in EcoHealth are wildlife / human interface scholars and have no idea of what went on in WIV.

    Dr. Alice Latinne Research Scientist As a research scientist at EcoHealth Alliance, Dr. Alice Latinne aims at better understanding the dynamics of pathogens within and among wildlife populations, livestock, and humans, with a focus on projects in Asia. Alice studies the evolutionary dynamics of host-pathogen interactions, and their co-evolution at the phylogenetic and phylogeographic scale, in order to assess the risk of zoonotic pathogens emergence at high-risk human-wildlife interfaces. Alice’s work aims to explain patterns and likelihood of pathogen sharing among species, and to determine how the host phylogenetic and phylogeographic structure affects pathogen distribution and cross-species transmission. Alice is currently involved with our work on Nipah virus and host dynamics in S. Asia and assessing the risk of bat Coronavirus emergence in live animal markets of southern China. Trained as an evolutionary biologist, Alice earned her M.Sc. in Animal Biology and her Ph.D. in Molecular Biology at the University of Liège in Belgium. Her Ph.D. dissertation aimed at exploring the diversity and evolutionary history of murid rodents in limestone karsts of Thailand. During her doctoral research, Alice has spent a long time trapping rodents and small mammals in Southeast Asia before analysing the collected samples in genetics laboratory. Prior to her current position at EcoHealth Alliance, Alice was a Marie Curie COFUND fellow and she conducted postdoctoral research at the Institut des Sciences de l’Evolution in Montpellier (ISEM) and at the Kasetsart University in Thailand. Her research goals were directed toward understanding the evolution of murid rodents and their associated parasites and pathogens in Southeast Asia.

    Dr. Kendra Phelps applies her keen interest in the ways that humans alter our own environment in her work creating bat surveillance networks in Western Asia. Through establishing a network of bat disease ecologists in the region which has previously been poorly studied, Kendra aims to expand our knowledge of the diseases bats can potentially spread to humans, and the ways in which humans can shift our own behaviors to prevent such disease spillovers. Dr. Phelps earned a BS from Auburn University and a Ph.D in Zoology from Texas Tech University. [a group of Texas Universities was suspected of having undisclosed ties to the Chinese.] She also worked in the Philippines as a Fulbright Fellow, there she studied cave-dwelling bats’ responses to cave disturbance and the interactions people living near those caves had with the bat populations. Before joining EcoHealth Alliance, Dr. Phelps worked as a lecturer and research associate at her alma mater, Texas Tech.

    Dr. Anne Laudisoit is an eco-epidemiologist and wildlife biologist who, through her interest in the interface between human, animal, and environmental health, became a One Health disease ecologist. Dr. Laudisoit holds a joint Ph. D from the University of Antwerp and Liège working on plague epidemiology in Tanzania. Dr. Laudisoit has spent extensive time in Africa; she has spent the last several years in the Democratic Republic of Congo studying neglected tropical diseases like onchocerciasis-associated epilepsy, emerging zoonotic diseases like monkeypox, Rickettsia, and Bartonella, and teaching at the University of Kisangani. She now works with EcoHealth Alliance on the PREDICT program, aiming to predict future viral epidemics globally.

    EcoHealth Alliance works at the leading edge of this field by building local capabilities and testing high-risk wildlife in Bangladesh, Côte d'Ivoire, Republic of Congo, China, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Jordan, Liberia, Malaysia, and Thailand. After scientists collect swabs or small amounts of blood, they analyze the samples in the lab to look for evidence of disease. The findings are catalogued in a database, that mathematical experts use to create predictive maps of potential disease outbreaks. This approach not only allows researchers to find new diseases, but also helps communities prepare for and respond to the threat of an outbreak.

    Tom Hughes Senior Scientist As Malaysian Project Coordinator at EcoHealth Alliance, Tom Hughes coordinates all of our sampling, testing, capacity building and training efforts in Malaysia. Tom’s responsibilities include setting up and running the Study of Zoonotic Infections among Persons Exposed to Wild Animals, a collaborative research project with the Malaysian Government, as well as being the PREDICT country coordinator for the USAID Emerging Pandemic Threats program and Deputy Chief of Party for the USAID Infectious Disease Emergence and Economics of Altered landscapes (IDEEAL) Project. Tom began working with EcoHealth Alliance in June 2005 on the Nipah virus research project in Malaysia. In 2007, he took on the new role of coordinating the Study of Zoonotic Infections among Persons Exposed to Wild Animals in Malaysia, to determine if close contact with wild animals results in the transfer of zoonotic diseases. In 2010, Tom became the PREDICT Malaysia country coordinator for USAID’s Emerging Pandemic Threats program. The aim of this research is to create an early warning system for potential zoonotic disease spillover into livestock and humans. Tom is working closely with partners from the Ministry of Health, the Department of Wildlife and National Parks, the Department of Veterinary Services, Sabah Wildlife Department and local universities to develop personnel and laboratory capacity and establish sustainable disease surveillance systems.


    Executives Listed on Filing

    Total Salary includes financial earnings, benefits, and all related organization earnings listed on tax filing

    NameTitleHours Per WeekTotal Salary
    Peter Daszak PhdPRESIDENT40$354,065
    William KareshEXECUTIVE VICE PRESIDENT40$274,730
    Armine ArustamyanCHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER40$186,603
    Leilani FranciscoSENIOR SCIENTIST40$167,417
    Kevin OlivalVICE PRESIDENT FOR RESEARCH40$151,650
    Jonathan EpsteinVICE PRESIDENT40$146,587
    Evelyn LucianoSR. FEDERAL GRANTS DIRECTOR40$139,488
    Ellen CarlinHEALTH AND POLICY SPECIALIST40$137,150
    Aleksei ChmuraCHIEF OF STAFF40$131,441
    Anthony RamosSENIOR DIRECTOR OF MARKETING40$129,305
    Mark O'DonnellDIRECTOR3$0
    Lisa SilversheinDIRECTOR3$0
    Pamela ThyeDIRECTOR3$0
    Lucy StitzerDIRECTOR3$0
    Sheila PatelDIRECTOR3$0
    Marianne De BackerDIRECTOR3$0
    David McintyreDIRECTOR3$0
    Joel MaizelDIRECTOR3$0
    James HughesDIRECTOR3$0
    Margaret LoebDIRECTOR3$0
    Bob KupermanDIRECTOR3$0
    Peter KaufmanDIRECTOR3$0
    Gerard CaddickDIRECTOR3$0
    Rita ColwellDIRECTOR3$0
    Holly HegenerDIRECTOR3$0
    Fredrick BaumDIRECTOR3$0
    Margery FishbeinDIRECTOR3$0
    Amy AttasDIRECTOR3$0
    Davud AmburgeyDIRECTOR3$0
    Robert HoguetTREASURER3$0
    Lori MichelinVICE CHAIR3$0
    Carlota VollhardtSECRETARY3$0
    Nancye GreenCHAIR3$0

    PAID EMPLOYEES OF ECO-HEALTH ALLIANCE

    Dr. William B. Karesh is the Executive Vice President for Health and Policy at EcoHealth Alliance. He serves as the president of the World Animal Health Organization (OIE) Working Group on Wildlife Diseases and also chairs the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Wildlife Health Specialist Group, a network of wildlife and health experts around the world. Dr. Karesh also serves on the World Health Organization's (WHO) International Health Regulations Roster of Experts focused on the human-animal interface and wildlife health. Currently, Dr. Karesh is the EPT Partner Liaison for the USAID Emerging Pandemic Threats PREDICT-2 program, a >$120 million effort focused on predicting and preventing pandemic diseases. He is a Life Member of the Council on Foreign Relations.

    Armine Arustamyan California Intercontinental University Degree Name Doctoral Field Of Study Business Administration Dates attended or expected graduation2010 – 2014 Activities and Societies: Global Business Leadership American University of Armenia Degree NameMaster's Degree Field Of Study System Management and Industrial Engineering Dates attended or expected graduation1995 – 1997 Yerevan State University Degree Name Master Field Of Study Science in Physics Dates attended or expected graduation1987 – 1992

    Leilani Francisco PhD MA PMP The Johns Hopkins University Degree Name Ph.D. Field Of Study International Public Health University of Maryland College Park Degree Name B.A. Field Of Study Sociocultural Anthropology University of South Florida Degree Name M.A.Field Of Study Applied Medical Anthropology

    Dr. Epstein received a PhD in Disease Ecology from Kingston University, London and his DVM and MPH from Tufts University. A veterinarian and disease ecologist, Dr. Jonathan Epstein is the Vice President for Science and Outreach at EcoHealth Alliance. His research focuses on the ecology of emerging zoonotic viruses such as Nipah and Ebola virus, along with SARS, Midde East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), and others that have emerged within Asia and Africa.

    Evelyn Luciano Rollins College Degree Name Master of Arts (MA)Field Of StudyHuman Resources Management and Services Certificate Dates attended or expected graduation2003 – 2003 Rollins College Degree Name Master of Arts (MA) Field Of Study Counseling Psychology dates attended or expected graduation1995 – 1999 Community Mental Health and School Counseling Catholic University of Puerto Rico Degree Name BSN Field Of Study Bachelor of Science In Nursing Grade BSN Dates attended or expected graduation1975 – 1979

    Dr. Ellen Carlin DVM is Assistant Research Professor at the Center for Global Health Science and Security, with a primary faculty appointment within the Department of Microbiology and Immunology. Her research interests are in the epidemiology of emerging infections. She studies incidence and transmission dynamics of zoonotic pathogens, focusing on the interfaces among people, animals, and the environments in which they live. She was Senior Professional Staff with the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Homeland Security (Peter T. King, NY), where for more than five years she handled medical preparedness, biodefense, and science and technology policy.At Georgetown, Ellen is also the director of the Global Infectious Disease graduate program at the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences.


    DASZAK IS CO-OPTED BY THE CHINESE AND BECOMES A CHINESE AGENT OF INFLUENCE

    I'm in charge of in the organization China..So the point is to establish capabilities in other countries not just take specimens from them and bring them back... that's the strategy and you know this the old adage that if you teach people how to do it, give them the tools then you've really made a difference. The money always dries up and this is something we've seen in the nonprofit world. You get great funding for five years from the foundation they always shift priorities because that's what emerged they closed them down. We have our staff in countries. We have sub contracts through local universities or agencies in-country and we have contracts to do work and it's all collaborative science so people love to interact on collaborative science. You know what I found especially in places like China where increasingly there's a paranoia around collaboration. Science collaboration is open and transparent because of the nature of what you're trying to do you're trying to discover stuff quickly, understand what it means, publish it in high-impact journal, and that drives openness and transparency and that's been great for us around the world it's also great for the U.S. and that's we really need to push that agenda. I think publishing is a very interesting mechanism you have to publish that's the argument we use.

    CHI COM PROPAGANDA QUOTES PETER DASZAK

    Daszak is a double agent who CIA thought was working for them but had been rolled over by the Chinese Communist Party because his father was a Nazi and war criminal who taught him to respect authoritarian governments. Daszak became a W.H.O. & Lancet inspector. A good place to be to cover-up for the Chinese and himself after he funneled money to the WIV and to the Bat Lady experiments which resulted in COVID-19 being created. And there is the question of how much money was transferred to numbered accounts Ukraine banks?

    Daszak: “I’ve seen incredible efforts from everything from [religious sect] Falun Gong to the [Chinese dissident] Miles Guo camp, Steve Bannon’s group pushing the conspiracy theories around China. It’s useful to them. They’re funding it and pushing it and science has been to some extent caught up in that to other instances absolutely crushed by it. We’ve not had access to work in China on the origins for the last 12 months, which is ironic because we could have been on the ground there working with our Chinese colleagues and by now we could have found some really important answers. The rhetoric has held that up. We need that communication [with the Chinese] in an outbreak to learn from them how they control it so we can control it better. It's sad to say, but it will probably cost lives. By sort of narrow-mindedly focusing in on ourselves, or on labs, or on certain cultural politics, we miss the real enemy.”

    DASZAG was a prime target of Chinese intelligence recruitment as he was already in bed with the CCP via EcoHealth. He parrots the Party Line. But he also was co-opted by the CIA until Trump cut his funds off. ECOHEALTH is a think tank put together by the CIA that was supposed to protect America from Pandemics by keeping an eye on bats. But ECOHEALTH began to subsidize GAIN-OF-FUNCTION / GAIN-OF-THREAT experiments at WIV and a recombinant virus leaked from the lab into the streets of Wuhan then into the market and out again. Was it coincidence that SARSCov2 started close to WIV? Just how close the Chinese won't say as they refuse to give out the address of patient zero.

    STATE DEPARTMENT REPORT BASED ON CIA INTELL REVEALS DASZIK WAS INVOLVED IN CHINESE MILITARY PROJECTS

    "The United States and other donors who funded or collaborated on civilian research at the WIV have a right and obligation to determine whether any of our research funding was diverted to secret Chinese military projects at the WIV."

    The U.S. government has reason to believe that several researchers inside the WIV became sick in autumn 2019, before the first identified case of the outbreak, with symptoms consistent with both COVID-19 and common seasonal illnesses. This raises questions about the credibility of WIV senior Researcher Shi Zhengli’s public claim that there was “zero infection” among the WIV’s staff and students of SARS-CoV-2 or SARS-related viruses. Accidental infections in labs have caused several previous virus outbreaks in China and elsewhere, Including a 2004 SARS outbreak in Beijing that infected nine people, killing one. The CCP has prevented independent journalists, investigators, and global health authorities from interviewing researchers at the WIV, including those who were ill in the fall of 2019. Any credible inquiry into the origin of the virus must include interviews with these researchers and a full accounting of their previously unreported illness. Starting in at least 2016 – and with no indication of a stop prior to the COVID-19 outbreak – WIV researchers conducted experiments involving RaTG13, the bat coronavirus identified by the WIV in January 2020 as its closest sample to SARS-CoV-2 (96.2% similar). The WIV became a focal point for international coronavirus research after the 2003 SARS outbreak and has since studied animals including mice, bats, and pangolins. The WIV has a published record of conducting “gain-of-function” research to engineer chimeric viruses. But the WIV has not been transparent or consistent about its record of studying viruses most similar to the COVID-19 virus, including “RaTG13,” which it sampled from a cave in Yunnan Province in 2013 after several miners died of SARS-like illness. WHO investigators must have access to the records of the WIV’s work on bat and other coronaviruses before the COVID-19 outbreak. As part of a thorough inquiry, they must have a full accounting of why the WIV altered and then removed online records of its work with RaTG13 and other viruses.

    Secrecy and non-disclosure are standard practice for Beijing. For many years the United States has publicly raised concerns about China’s past biological weapons work, which Beijing has neither documented nor demonstrably eliminated, despite its clear obligations under the Biological Weapons Convention. Today’s revelations just scratch the surface of what is still hidden about COVID-19’s origin in China. Any credible investigation into the origin of COVID-19 demands complete, transparent access to the research labs in Wuhan, including their facilities, samples, personnel, and records. As the world continues to battle this pandemic – and as WHO investigators begin their work, after more than a year of delays – the virus’s origin remains uncertain. The United States will continue to do everything it can to support a credible and thorough investigation, including by continuing to demand transparency on the part of Chinese authorities. Despite the WIV presenting itself as a civilian institution, the United States has determined that the WIV has collaborated on publications and secret projects with China’s military. The WIV has engaged in classified research, including laboratory animal experiments, on behalf of the Chinese military since at least 2017. The United States and other donors who funded or collaborated on civilian research at the WIV have a right and obligation to determine whether any of our research funding was diverted to secret Chinese military projects at the WIV.
    https://www.nytimes.com/2021/01/09/world/europe/coronavirus-mutations.html

    ENSURING A TRANSPARENT, THOROUGH INVESTIGATION OF COVID-19’S ORIGIN PRESS STATEMENT MICHAEL R. POMPEO, SECRETARY OF STATE JANUARY 15, 2021

    The United States has repeatedly called for a transparent and thorough investigation into the origin of COVID-19. Understanding the origin of this pandemic is essential for global public health, economic recovery, and international security. To assist the vital work of the World Health Organization (WHO) investigative team that arrived in China this week, the United States government is today sharing new information concerning the activities inside China’s government laboratories in 2019. In particular, we urge the WHO to press the government of China to address the following: Illnesses at the Wuhan Institute of Virology (WIV): The United States government has reason to believe that several researchers inside the WIV became sick in autumn 2019, before the first identified case of the outbreak, with symptoms consistent with both COVID-19 and common seasonal illnesses. This raises questions about the credibility of WIV senior researcher Shi Zhengli’s public claim that there was “zero infection” among the WIV’s staff and students of SARS-CoV-2 or SARS-related viruses. WIV Research on “RaTG13” and “gain of function”: Starting in at least 2016, WIV researchers studied RaTG13, the bat coronavirus identified by the WIV in January 2020 as its closest sample to SARS-CoV-2 (96.2% similar). Since the outbreak, the WIV has not been transparent nor consistent about its work with RaTG13 or other similar viruses, including possible “gain of function” experiments to enhance transmissibility or lethality. Secret WIV Links to Military Research: Despite the WIV presenting itself as a civilian institution, the WIV has collaborated on publications and secret projects with China’s military. The WIV has engaged in classified research, including laboratory animal experiments, on behalf of the Chinese military since at least 2017. The COVID-19 pandemic was avoidable. Any responsible country would have invited world health investigators to Wuhan within days of an outbreak. China instead refused offers of help – including from the United States – and punished brave Chinese doctors, scientists, and journalists who tried to alert the world to the dangers of the virus. Beijing continues today to withhold vital information that scientists need to protect the world from this deadly virus, and the next one. The United States reiterates the importance of unfettered access to virus samples, lab records and personnel, eyewitnesses, and whistleblowers to ensure the credibility of the WHO’s final report. Until the CCP allows a full and thorough accounting of what happened in Wuhan, it is only a matter of time until China births another pandemic and inflicts it on the Chinese people, and the world.
    https://2017-2021.state.gov/ensuring-a-transparent-thorough-investigation-of-covid-19s-origin/index.html



    WORKED IN CHINA FOR 15 YEARS - RECRUITED BY CHINESE INTELLIGENCE https://www.nytimes.com/2020/01/28/science/bats-coronavirus-Wuhan.html

    Baric is dirty - was involved with SHI ZHENGLI in virus creation at the University of North Carolina. Collwell is focused on oceans. Saif is a vet. Hume Field and rest work for the bio-war criminal, Daszak!

    Dr. Peter Daszak, president of EcoHealth Alliance, who has been working in China for 15 years studying diseases that jump from animals to people, said, “We don’t know the source yet, but there’s pretty strong evidence that this is a bat origin coronavirus.” He said, “It’s probably going to be the Chinese horseshoe bat,” a common species that weighs up to an ounce.

    DASZAK BLAMES UNITED STATES FEDERAL GOVERNMENT FOR MONKEY POX

    But zoonoses fall into a gray area, and the 2003 monkeypox outbreak in the Midwest is a perfect example of what can go wrong, said Peter Daszak, director of the Consortium for Conservation Medicine at the Wildlife Trust, a group specializing in human-animal diseases. The disease, related to smallpox but less deadly, arrived in a shipment of 18 Gambian giant pouched rats imported for a Chicago pet store, where they infected prairie dogs. By summer's end, there were 37 confirmed human cases -- none fatal, but some scary -- mostly among prairie-dog owners. Millions of live animals come into the country each year, and very few have really good surveillance," Dr. Daszak said. "Fish and Wildlife checks cargoes to see if they have endangered species, but it's the U.S.D.A. that does health checks, and they don't go unless it's an agricultural product, so the pet trade tends to get a pass." "The C.D.C. does a great job with outbreak investigation, but that's after the fact," he said of the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "After monkeypox, they put a blanket ban on rodents from some West African countries. But who's looking at rodents from other places? Nobody. And that's a gap." https://www.nytimes.com/2005/11/06/us/sentries-in-us-seek-early-signs-of-an-avian-flu.html

    BLAMES CHINA'S ECONOMIC PROSPERITY FOR SARS

    It is likely, the study found, that one of these "SARS-like" viruses evolved into the SARS virus at an exotic animal marketplace, where it infected civets, which, in turn, infected humans, according to Michael Farzan, a Harvard Medical School assistant professor who was not involved in the research. But why did this happen when it did? One intriguing possibility is that it is linked to China's economic boom, according to Peter Daszak, a co-author of the SARS paper who is executive director of the Consortium for Conservation Medicine. With the newfound wealth there, he said, animal markets have grown as more people can afford fresh animal meat. As the markets grow, so do the chances that a virus will jump from one species to the next.
    https://www.nytimes.com/2006/04/26/health/blaming-bats-when-man-may-be-culprit.html

    BLAMES EURASIA FOR SWINE FLU, NOT CHINA

    The flu that is moving through humans appears to have a combination of genes from two normally separate sets of pigs, those from the Americas and from Eurasia, scientists say. However, it is unknown how those pigs met, and there is not yet any genetic proof that this particular flu was ever in a pig. Peter Daszak, president of the Wildlife Trust, found records showing that Mexico imported two pigs from France in 2007, the United States imported a few from Britain and Ireland, and Canada imported hundreds from Europe. “And surely this isn’t the whole truth,” he said. “There must be a hidden illegal trade.”
    https://www.nytimes.com/2009/05/01/health/01origin.html

    NEVER MENTIONS CHINESE VILLAGES

    “By mapping encroachment into the forest you can predict where the next disease could emerge,” Dr. Daszak, EcoHealth’s president, says. “So we’re going to the edge of villages, we’re going to places where mines have just opened up, areas where new roads are being built. We are going to talk to people who live within these zones and saying, ‘what you are doing is potentially a risk.’”
    https://www.nytimes.com/2012/07/15/sunday-review/the-ecology-of-disease.html

    NEVER BLAMES CHINA FOR SPREAD OF NEW VIRUSES

    Peter Daszak, a parasitologist and president of the EcoHealth Alliance, has even put a number on it: 5.3 new ones each year, based on a study using data from 1940 to 2004. He and his co-authors blamed population growth, deforestation, antibiotic overuse, factory farming, live animal markets, bush meat hunting, jet travel and other factors. https://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/28/health/new-tools-to-hunt-new-viruses.htm

    HAPPY TO BLAME THE SAUDIS FOR MERS

    It was the darkest hour since the new illness, known as Middle East respiratory syndrome, or MERS, first appeared in Saudi Arabia late in 2012. In all, more than 700 cases have been documented in 20 countries, nearly all of them linked to Saudi Arabia. More than 250 people have died. King Abdullah fired the country’s health minister and his deputy in April, leaving experts wondering whether the shake-up would bring greater transparency and international cooperation. “In the U.S., when you have a crisis like the Veterans Administration scandal, the new head is in front of the TV cameras explaining what the new plan is,” said Dr. Peter Daszak, president of EcoHealth Alliance, a veterinary organization that tracked the disease in animals. “There is no tradition of openness in Saudi Arabia.” https://www.nytimes.com/2014/06/30/world/middleeast/flawed-saudi-response-fueled-outbreak-of-mers-middle-east-virus.htm

    STATEMENT IN SUPPORT OF THE SCIENTISTS, PUBLIC HEALTH, AND MEDICAL PROFESSIONALS OF CHINA COMBATING THE NOVEL CORONAVIRUS OUTBREAK

    We, the undersigned, are public health scientists who have closely followed the emergence of 2019-nCoV, and are deeply concerned about its impact on global health and well-being. We have watched as the scientists, public health and medical professionals of China, in particular, have worked diligently and effectively to rapidly identify the pathogen behind this outbreak, put in place significant measures to reduce its impact, and share their results transparently with the global health community. This effort has been remarkable. We sign this statement in solidarity with all scientists and health professionals in China who continue to save lives and protect global health during the challenge of this novel coronavirus outbreak. We are all in this together, with our Chinese counterparts in the forefront, against this new viral threat. The rapid, open and transparent sharing of data on 2019-nCoV is now being threatened by rumors and misinformation around the origins of this outbreak. We stand together to strongly condemn conspiracy theories suggesting that 2019-nCoV does not have a natural origin. Scientists from multiple countries have published and analyzed 2019-nCoV genomes1, and they overwhelmingly conclude that this virus originated in wildlife, as have so many other emerging diseases. This is further supported by a letter from the Presidents of the US National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine, and by the scientific communities they represent. Conspiracy theories do nothing but create fear, rumors, and prejudice that jeopardize our global collaboration in the fight against this virus. We support the call from the Director-General of the World Health Organization to promote scientific evidence and unity over misinformation and conjecture13. We want you, the science and health professionals of China, to know that we stand with you in your fight against this virus. We invite others to join us in supporting the scientists, public health, and medical professionals of Wuhan and across China. Stand with our colleagues on the front-line!

    Signatories
    Dr. James Hughes, Professor Emeritus, Emory University School of Medicine
    Dr. Rita Colwell, Distinguished University Professor, University of Maryland College Park
    Dr. Linda Saif, Distinguished University Professor, The Ohio State University
    Dr. Billy Karesh, Executive Vice President, EcoHealth Alliance
    Dr. Peter Daszak, President, EcoHealth Alliance
    Dr. Hume Field, Honorary Professor, School of Veterinary Science, The University of
    Queensland
    
    From: Tara Hoda 
    Sent: Thursday, January 24, 2019 1:57 PM
    To: rcolwell@umiacs.umd.edu; Victoria Lord
    Cc: Anthony Ramos; Peter Daszak
    Subject: Carnegie Corporation Contacts
    Dear Dr. Colwell,
    It was so wonderful meeting you at the board meeting last week. As mentioned,
    we will be submitting a Letter of Inquiry to the Carnegie Corporation under
    their International Peace and Security portfolio. Our proposed project focuses on
    promoting a multi-sectoral approach and building capacity and partnerships for
    pandemic outbreaks and international health security processes in Western Asia.
    Our LOI is attached to this e-mail.
    You had mentioned you may have connections with the following people who are
    members of Carnegie Corporation's Board of Directors:
    1) Jared Cohon
    2) John DeGioia
    3) Marcia McNutt
    4) Judy Woodruff
    For the Carnegie Corporation, it will greatly increase our chances of having our
    proposal considered if we have a point of contact. Would you be willing to put us
    in touch with one of the people above, or to directly send an e-mail letting them
    EcoHealth Alliance will be submitting an application? Any and all leads would be
    greatly appreciated.
    Best,
    Tara
    --
    Tara Hoda
    Development Associate
    EcoHealth Alliance

    I’m on a panel on biothreats…National Press Club, Washington, DC, Monday afternoon April 30…along with a roster of DoD, CIA, DHS, and other assorted luminaries. Anything I should say or comment on regarding EcoHealth, Peter?

    Mrs. Morris Hadley, another civic leader, whose husband was one-time head of the Carnegie Foundation and is now head of the CIA conduit Rubicon Foundation. Through his membership in the law firm of Milbank, Tween, Hadley, and McCloy he has close association with John J. McCloy, once chairman of the board of Chase Manhattan Bank, former chairman of the Ford Foundation, past president of the World Bank, past U.S. High Commissioner to Germany and chairman of the board of the New York International House, a Rockefeller-backed institution dedicated to making the foreign student feel at home.

    TRAP SET BY THIS RESEARCHER SNARES CHINESE INTEREST IN DASZIG

    When peterdaszak.com went online the first ones to become aware of it were the Chinese. Hours after it first came on line they were visiting. The CCP had an alert on their agent Peter Daszak. But by visiting the page they confirmed the fact he was a Chinese agent or agent of influence. Peter was a prime target of Chinese intelligence recruitment as he was already in bed with the CCP. He parrots the Party Line. But he also was co-opted by the CIA until Trump cut his funds off. ECOHEALTH is a think tank put together by the CIA that was supposed to protect America from Pandemics by keeping an eye on bats. But ECOHEALTH began to subsidize Gain-of-Function, Gain-of-Threat experiments at WIV and a recombinant virus leaked from the lab into the streets of Wuhan then into the market and out again. Was it coincidence that SARSCov2 started close to WIV? Just how close the Chinese won't say as they refuse to give out the address of patient zero.

    NO PROOF FOR ZOONOTIC THEORY: VIRUS STILL NOT FOUND IN NATURE

    DASZAK: "The real risk is in the wild in the way people interact with wildlife around the world, that's where we need to be focused if we want to really do something about preventing the next pandemic."

    COVID DASZAK INTERVIEW PUTS FORTH THE BAT TO ANIMAL TO HUMAN THEORY ALTHOUGH HE FAILS TO SAY WHAT ANIMAL https://www.nytimes.com/2021/02/14/health/WHO-covid-daszak-china-virus.html

    He reflected on the atmosphere in Wuhan and his first glimpse of the seafood market where the initial outbreak occurred last year, although it was not the site of the first cases. He also said the path ahead would be straightforward scientifically, but not politically. A transcript of the conversation, condensed and edited for length, follows:

    You’ve been to China and to Wuhan many times before. How was this different?

    DASZAK: Well, this was weird. There’s certain things when you go into China that you’re supposed to do. The first thing you do is have a meeting and then have a meal. And if you don’t have a meal, it’s considered extremely rude. This time we spent two weeks in Zoom calls from our quarantine hotel. Then we went to meet in person and still didn’t have meals with our host. We had meals in a separate room. So it was just a very difficult, very intense, very emotional trip. In Wuhan, there’s this feeling of post-traumatic shock. The city went on lockdown, I think, 76 days. They were locked in their apartments — people died, and they didn’t know about it. And from then on, they’ve been accused of starting a pandemic, and it’s been called the Wuhan virus, the China virus, and there was just a sense of outrage and sadness.

    Did that make it difficult in terms of the scientific purpose of the trip?

    DASZAK: No. You’ve got a task to do. You’ve volunteered. You know what it’s going to be like. You get caught up in the historical importance. I don’t know if we were the first foreigners to walk around the Huanan seafood market, which is blocked off even to Chinese citizens. The only people that have been in there have been the Chinese disease investigators. We met with the doctors that treated the first known Covid patients. These people have been through harrowing conditions, and they’re now lauded as heroes in China, and then the rest of the world now is fighting that war. And China, of course, is absolutely petrified of this virus catching hold again. When you arrive at the airport, they come on the plane in full P.P.E.; you’re escorted down a separate quarantine pathway; you get tested. You’re driven to the hotel, you go in your room, and you’re locked in for two weeks. It’s just severe. The people who come to your door are in full P.P.E. The waste from your trash, from the hotel room, goes into a yellow bag with a biohazard sign on it. It was a totally different experience when I returned home, where I didn’t even get a notification that I’ve got to quarantine. I signed on to the New York state app, but no one is going to knock on my door and tell me, “Stay indoors.”

    Did you learn anything from this trip that you didn’t know before?

    DASZAK: From Day 1, the data we were seeing were new that had never been seen outside China. Who were the vendors in the Huanan seafood market? Where did they get their supply chains? And what were the contacts of the first cases? How real were the first cases? What other clusters were there? When you asked for more, the Chinese scientists would go off, and a couple of days later, they’ve done the analysis, and we’ve got new information. It was extremely useful. At the time, you couldn’t really say much. We were trying to not undermine the process by revealing anything while we were on the trip.

    What can you say now about the market and what you saw?

    DASZAK: The market closed on the 31st of December 31, 2020 or January 1, 2021, and China C.D.C. sent a team in of scientists to try and find out what was going on. It was a very extensive study, swabbing every surface of this place. We knew early on that there were 500 samples collected, and there were many positives, and in that sampling were some animal carcasses, or meat. But there was not really much information publicly about what had been done. So we got all that information. And that, to me, was a real eye-opener. They’d actually done over 900 swabs in the end, a huge amount of work. They had been through the sewage system. They’d been into the air ventilation shaft to look for bats. They’d caught animals around the market. They’d caught cats, stray cats, rats, they even caught one weasel. They’d sampled snakes. People had live snakes at the market, live turtles, live frogs. Rabbits were there, rabbit carcasses. A farm with rabbits could have been really critical. There was talk about badgers, and in China, when they say badger, that means ferret badger. It’s a mustelid, related to weasels. Animals were coming into that market that could have carried the coronavirus. They could have been infected by bats somewhere else in China and brought it in. So that’s clue No. 1. There were 10 stalls that sold wildlife. There were vendors from South China, including Yunnan Province, Guangxi Province and Guangdong Province. Yunnan Province is where the closest relative to SARS-CoV-2 is found in bats. Guangxi and Guangdong are where the pangolins were captured. They had close viruses. You’ve got animals coming in to the market which are susceptible. Some of these are coming from places where we know the nearest relatives of the virus are found. So there’s the real red flag. Now the Chinese group did swab those animals, and they were all negative, but it’s just one small group of animals in the freezer that were left behind. We don’t know what else was for sale there. So these two clues are really important. When we got to actually visit the market, to me it was quite striking. The pictures you see of that market closed now are of quite orderly buildings with shutters, and you think, This a very efficient, typical city market. It doesn’t really look like a live animal market. Once you get there on the ground, it’s different. It’s pretty ramshackle. It looks like a place that would sell live animals. There’s plenty of evidence of live aquatic animals, the turtle tanks, the fish tanks, the snakes, which we know were available. What we now have are a clear link and a potential pathway.

    What about the cases that appeared before the outbreak in the seafood market?

    DASZAK: There was other spread going on outside of Huanan market. There are other patients who have no links to the market, quite a few in December. There were other markets. And we do know that some of the patients had links to other markets. We need to do some further work, and then the Chinese colleagues need to do some further work. When we sat down as a group, the China team and the W.H.O. team on the last full day of work, and said, “Let’s go through the hypotheses,” the one that received the most enthusiastic support was this pathway — wildlife, through a domesticated wildlife link, into Wuhan.

    What is the next step?

    DASZAK: For the animals chain, it’s straightforward. The suppliers are known. They know the farm name; they know the owner of the farm. You’ve got to go down to the farm and interview the farmer and the family. You’ve got to test them. You’ve got to test the community. You’ve got to go and look and see if there are any animals left at any farms nearby and see if they’ve got evidence of infection, and see if there is any cross-border movement. If the virus is in those southern border states, it’s possible that there’s been some movement across neighboring countries like Vietnam, Laos or Myanmar. We’re finding more and more related viruses now. There’s one in Japan and one in Cambodia, one in Thailand. For the human side, look for earlier cases, for clusters; look in blood banks for serum, if possible. Anything like this is going to be sensitive in China, and it’s going to take some persuasion and diplomacy and energy for them to do that because, to be honest, looking for the source of this virus within China is not a great, high priority I think for the Chinese government. Anywhere this virus is shown to emerge is a political issue. That’s one of the problems, and that is clear and obvious to anyone who has been looking at this.

    Do you have a particular animal that you suspect right now as an intermediate link, more strongly than others?

    DASZAK: It’s too up in the air. We don’t know if civets were on sale. We know they are very easily infected. We don’t know what the situation is with the mink farms in China or the other fur farms, like raccoon dogs, even though they’re normally farmed in a different part of China. That needs to be followed up on, too. But if you were to say which pathway would you put the most weight on, I think the virus emerging either in Southeast Asia or Southern China from bats, getting into a domesticated wildlife farm. I’ve been to many of these, and they often have mixed species — civets, ferret badgers, raccoon dogs. Those animals would be able to get infected from bats. Either the people that work there get infected and bring it in, or animals are shipped in, live or recently killed, that bring the virus into a market. Once it’s in a market — either Huanan or another one in Wuhan — you’ve got a dense population of people moving through those markets. And it’s going to be a real potential for an amplification.

    The new data that you saw, for instance, on the vendors and their supply chains, will that be in your full report?

    DASZAK: I hope so. There’ll be some things that are going to be confidential, without a doubt. Patient records are kept highly confidential in China. We have an image in the West of China being authoritarian and they are videoing everyone. They can have access to anything. But patient records are very private, and some are not accessible. We wanted to meet with certain patients. They didn’t want to meet, so they weren’t pushed to meet with us. There’s no reason to believe that was shenanigans. I’m hoping all the information about vendors, vendor chains will be there. But if not, we’ve seen it. We’ve got it. And we will be following up.

    Nearly one-quarter of the world’s mammal species are bats, and their ability to fly while hosting a petri dish of viruses makes them both zoological marvels and efficient vectors of disease. Infectious diseases that are believed to have emerged from bats in recent decades include coronaviruses like SARS and MERS, along with other viruses like Nipah, Hendra and Ebola. Most of these viruses were transferred from bats to an intermediate host, like a palm civet or camel, before making their way to humans. The coronavirus that causes Covid-19, which came to public attention in late 2019, has not been conclusively traced to bats, in Yunnan Province in southwestern China. NYT

    SARS COV-2 WAS NEVER FOUND IN THE BLOOD OR FECES OF ANY ANIMAL

    The fact that these CCP controlled scientists can only find a virus that resembles SARS-CoV-2 in nature and not the virus itself gives creedance to the possibility it was enhanced and artifical. All it proves is that there are viruses in bats closely resemble SARS-CoV-2. Until SARS-CoV-2 is discovered in animals the possibility remains open that it is laboratory escape or evolved warp speed within a human. A virus virtually identical to SARS-CoV-1 was found in the Himalayan, or masked, palm civet. It is related to the mongoose, resembles a large weasel and is a threatened species.

    SARS CoV1 WAS FOUND IN ANIMALS https://www.nytimes.com/2003/05/24/world/strain-of-sars-is-found-in-3-animal-species-in-asia.html

    Initial phylogenetic analyses reveal that the SARS-CoV-1 in civets and humans actually come from two distant branches, but the SARS-CoV from civets during the incipient phase of the epidemic had 99.8% sequence similarity to the human SARS-CoV
    https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/ame2.12017

    “Our research has shown that the SARS coronavirus found in human victims is the same as the SARS coronavirus found in civet cats,” a paper quoted Wang Ming, an official from the Guangzhou Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, as saying. As research progressed horseshoes bats were blamed, however, the Chinese put an end the epidemic when they slaughters and boiled most of the civets in all of China.

    FEBRUARY 2020 CHINESE ATTEMPT TO PROVE THAT THE UNIQUE CORONA VIRUS WAS FOUND IN NATURE

    "Abstract The SARS-CoV-2 epidemic started in late December 2019 in Wuhan, China, and has since impacted a large portion of China and raised major global concern. Herein, we investigated the extent of molecular divergence between SARS-CoV-2 and other related coronaviruses. Although we found only 4% variability in genomic nucleotides between SARS-CoV-2 and a bat SARS-related coronavirus (SARSr-CoV; RaTG13), the difference at neutral sites was 17%, suggesting the divergence between the two viruses is much larger than previously estimated. Our results suggest that the development of new variations in functional sites in the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike seen in SARS-CoV-2 and viruses from pangolin SARSr-CoVs are likely caused by natural selection besides recombination. Population genetic analyses of 103 SARS-CoV-2 genomes indicated that these viruses had two major lineages (designated L and S), that are well defined by two different SNPs that show nearly complete linkage across the viral strains sequenced to date. We found that L lineage was more prevalent than the S lineage within the limited patient samples we examined. The implication of these evolutionary changes on disease etiology remains unclear. These findings strongly underscores the urgent need for further comprehensive studies that combine viral genomic data, with epidemiological studies of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

    THE SEARCH FOR THE VIRUS IN NATURE

    DISCUSSION: We investigated the patterns of molecular divergence between SARS-CoV-2 and other related coronaviruses. Although the genomic analyses suggested that SARS-CoV-2 was closest to RaTG13, their difference at neutral sites was much higher than previously realized. Our results provide novel insights for tracing the intermediate natural host of SARS-CoV-2. With population genetic analyses of 103 genomes of SARS-CoV-2, we found that SARS-CoV-2 viruses had two major lineages (L and S lineages), and the two lineages were well defined by just two SNPs that show complete linkage across SARS-CoV-2 strains. The L lineage (~70%) was found to be more prevalent than the S lineage (~30%) in the SARS-CoV-2 viruses we examined, our evolutionary analyses suggested the S appeared to be more related to coronaviruses in animals. Since nonsynonymous sites are usually under stronger negative selection than synonymous sites, calculating sequence differences without separating these two classes of sites could lead to a potentially significant underestimate of the degree of molecular divergence. For example, although the overall nucleotides only differed by ~4% between SARS-CoV-2 and RaTG13, the genomic average dS value, which is usually a neutral proxy, was 0.17 between these two viruses (Table 1). Of note, the genome-wide dS value is 0.012 between humans and chimpanzees [35], and 0.08 between humans and rhesus macaques [36]. Thus, the neutral molecular divergence between SARS-CoV-2 and RaTG13 is 14 times larger than that between humans and chimpanzees, and twice as large as that between humans and macaques. The genomic average dS value between SARS-CoV-2 and GD Pangolin-CoV is 0.469, which is comparable to that between humans and mice (0.5) [37], and the dS value between SARS-CoV-2 and GX Pangolin-Cov is even larger (0.722). The scale of these measures suggests that we should perhaps consider the difference in the neutral evolving site rather than the difference in all nucleotide sequences when tracing the origin and natural intermediate host of SARS-CoV-2. In this work, we propose that SARS-CoV-2 can be divided into two major lineages (L and S). Intriguingly, the S and L lineages can be clearly defined by just two tightly linked SNPs at positions 8,782 (orf1ab: T8517C, synonymous) and 28,144 (ORF8: C251T, S84L). orf1ab, which encodes replicase/transcriptase, is required for viral genome replication and might also be important for viral pathogenesis [38]. Although the T8517C mutation in orf1ab does not change the protein sequence (it changes the codon AGT (Ser) to AGC (Ser)), it may affect orf1ab translation since AGT is preferred while AGC is unpreferred (Table S2). ORF8 promotes the expression of ATF6, the ER unfolded protein response factor, in human cells [39]. Thus, it will be interesting to investigate the function of the S84L AA change in ORF8, as well as the combinatory effect of these two mutations in SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis. As previously noted [19], the data examined in this study are still very limited, and follow-up analyses of a larger set of data are needed to have a better understanding of the evolution and epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2.
    https://academic.oup.com/nsr/advance-article/doi/10.1093/nsr/nwaa036/5775463

    If it could be proven that the virus mutated that would mean it was not artificial. "Even for pandemic flu — a virus much more given to rapid change than the one that causes Covid-19 — a few months would be a short timeline for a widespread functional mutation. There isn't a clear-cut evolutionary case for a virus like SARS-CoV2, which has already managed to infect more than 6 million people and often causes mild symptoms, to quickly get milder. If anything, it seems more likely that it would be genetically stable.
    Bloomberg Opinion: https://www.bloomberg.com/opinion/articles/2020-06-04/coronavirus-post-peak-lull-in-cases-doesn-t-mean-weaker-virus

    2020: RATG13: CHINESE SCIENTISTS CAN ONLY FIND VIRUSES THAT RESEMBLE SARS CoV2 96% AND EXHIBIT DISSIMILAR AMINO ACID INSERTIONS SINCE THEY DO NOT TRANSMIT DISEASE

    "The corona virus that causes COVID-19, known as SARS-CoV-2, shares 96% of its genetic sequence with a virus found in bats. It is in the collection of viral genomes assembled during those studies that scientists have now found the bat virus closest to SARS-COV-2. A strain called RATG13 gathered in the same cave in Yunnan shares 96% of its genetic sequence with the new virus. RATG13 is not that virus’s ancestor. It is something more like its cousin. Edward Holmes, a virologist at the University of Sydney, estimates that the 4% difference between the two represents at least 20 years of evolutionary divergence from some common antecedent, and probably something more like 50."
    https://www.economist.com/science-and-technology/2020/05/02/the-pieces-of-the-puzzle-of-covid-19s-origin-are-coming-to-light

    THE SEARCH FOR THE VIRUS IN NATURE CONTINUES: THE BAT-DERIVED CORONAVIRUS RaTG13 SHARES 93.3 PER CENT NUCLEOTIDE IDENTITY WITH SARS-COV-2 AT THE SCALE OF THE COMPLETE VIRUS GENOME BUT IS NOT THE EVOLUTIONARY ANCESTOR OF SARS CoV

    The researchers identified RmYN02 from an analysis of 227 bat samples collected in Yunnan province, China, between May and October of 2019. "Since the discovery that bats were the reservoir of SARS coronavirus in 2005, there has been great interest in bats as reservoir species for infectious diseases, particularly as they carry a very high diversity of RNA viruses, including coronaviruses," SHI ZHENGLI says. RNA from the samples was sent for metagenomic next-generation sequencing in early January 2020, soon after the discovery of SARS-CoV-2. Across the whole genome, the closest relative to SARS-CoV-2 is another virus, called RaTG13, which was previously identified from bats in Yunnan province. But RmYN02, the virus newly discovered here, is even more closely related to SARS-CoV-2 in some parts of the genome, including in the longest encoding section of the genome called 1ab, where they share 97.2% of their RNA. The researchers note that RmYN02 does not closely resemble SAR-CoV-2 in the region of the genome that encodes the key receptor binding domain that binds to the human ACE2 receptor that SARS-CoV-2 uses to infect host cells. This means it's not likely to infect human cells. The key similarity between SARS-CoV-2 and RmYN02, is the finding that RmYN02 also contains amino acid insertions at the point where the two subunits of its spike protein meet. SARS-CoV-2 is characterized by a four-amino-acid insertion at the junction of S1 and S2; this insertion is unique to the virus and has been present in all SARS-CoV-2 sequenced so far. The insertions in RmYN02 are not the same as those in SARS-CoV-2, which indicates that they occurred through independent insertion events. But a similar insertion event happening in a virus identified in bats strongly suggests that these kinds of insertions are of natural origin. "Our findings suggest that these insertion events that initially appeared to be very unusual can, in fact, occur naturally in animal betacoronaviruses," SHI ZHENGLI says. "Our work sheds more light on the evolutionary ancestry of SARS-CoV-2," he adds. "Neither RaTG13 nor RmYN02 is the direct ancestor of SARS-CoV-2, because there is still an evolutionary gap between these viruses. But our study strongly suggests that sampling of more wildlife species will reveal viruses that are even more closely related to SARS-CoV-2 and perhaps even its direct ancestors, which will tell us a great deal about how this virus emerged in humans." Pure speculation of the part a scientist out to prove China was not responsible for this pandemic.

    THE SOUND AND THE FURIN

    The researchers note that RmYN02 does not closely resemble SARS-CoV-2 in the region of the genome that encodes the key receptor domain that binds to the human ACE2 receptor that the novel coronavirus uses to infect host cells. This means it's not likely to infect human cells, they said. The key similarity between SARS-CoV-2 and RmYN02 is the finding that RmYN02 also contains amino acid insertions at the point where the two subunits of its spike protein meet, according to the researchers. The viral spike protein mediates SARS-CoV-2 entry into host cells and harbors a S1/S2 cleavage site containing multiple arginine residues (multibasic) not found in closely related animal coronaviruses. However, the role of this multibasic cleavage site in SARS-CoV-2 infection is unknown. Here, we report that the cellular protease furin* cleaves the spike protein at the S1/S2 site and that cleavage is essential for S-protein-mediated cell-cell fusion and entry into human lung cells. Moreover, optimizing the S1/S2 site increased cell-cell, but not virus-cell, fusion, suggesting that the corresponding viral variants might exhibit increased cell-cell spread and potentially altered virulence. Our results suggest that acquisition of a S1/S2 multibasic cleavage site was essential for SARS-CoV-2 infection of humans and identify furin as a potential target for therapeutic intervention.
    https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1097276520302641

    DR. DAVID BALTIMORE

    *Originally identified in 1990, furin is a cellular endoprotease that proteolytically activates many proprotein substrates ranging from pathogenic agents to growth factors, receptors, and extracellular matrix proteins. The furin cleavage site is a small region of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein just 12 units of its 30,000-unit genome. A virus usually acquires inserts like this by accidentally exchanging genomic units with another virus when both invade the same cell. But no other known virus in SARS2’s group has this 12-unit insert. No one has yet found the human population in which the virus might have evolved this way. The insert also contains entities known as arginine codons, which are common in humans but not in coronaviruses like SARS2. “Since 1992 the virology community has known that the one sure way to make a virus deadlier is to give it a furin cleavage site,” writes Dr. Steven Quay, a biotech entrepreneur interested in the origins of SARS2. "At least 11 such experiments have been published, including one by Dr. Shi." David Baltimore, an eminent virologist and former president of the California Institute of Technology stated: “When I first saw the furin cleavage site in the viral sequence, with its arginine codons, I said to my wife it was the smoking gun for the origin of the virus. These features make a powerful challenge to the idea of a natural origin for SARS2,” he said. Baltimore is currently President Emeritus and distinguished Professor of Biology at Caltech. Awarded the Nobel Prize at the age of 37 for research in virology, Baltimore has profoundly influenced national science policy on such issues as recombinant DNA research and the AIDS epidemic. Also see:

    GAIN OF FUNCTION INSERTIONS AT POLYBASIC FURIN CLEAVAGE SITE IS EVIDENCE VIRUS WAS MODIFIED FOR INCREASED INFECTIVITY AND PATHOGENICITY
    DR. RONEN SHEMESH
    DR. RONEN SHEMESH EXPLAINS THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE POLYBASIC FURIN CLEAVAGE SITE PRRA

    2020: RmYN02

    WEIFENG SHI

    May 2020: There is ongoing debate among policymakers and the general public about where SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, came from. While researchers consider bats the most likely natural hosts for SARS-CoV-2, the origins of the virus are still unclear. On May 10, 2020 in the journal Current Biology, researchers describe a recently identified bat coronavirus that is SARS-CoV-2's closest relative in some regions of the genome and which contains insertions of amino acids at the junction of the S1 and S2 subunits of the virus's spike protein in a manner similar to SAR-CoV-2. While it's not a direct evolutionary precursor of SARS-CoV-2, this new virus, RmYN02, suggests that these types of seemingly unusual insertion events can occur naturally in coronavirus evolution, the researchers say. "Since the discovery of SARS-CoV-2 there have been a number of unfounded suggestions that the virus has a laboratory origin," says senior author Weifeng Shi, director and professor at the Institute of Pathogen Biology at Shandong First Medical University in China. "In particular, it has been proposed the S1/S2 insertion is highly unusual and perhaps indicative of laboratory manipulation. Our paper shows very clearly that these events occur naturally in wildlife. This provides strong evidence against SARS-CoV-2 being a laboratory escape."
    https://www.technologynetworks.com/genomics/news/spotlight-on-coronavirus-evolution-as-sars-cov-2-relative-is-found-in-bats-334649

    WANG YANYI

    CCP MOUTHPIECE: CORONAVIRUS LAB LEAK CLAIMS ‘PURE FABRICATION’, WUHAN LAB CHIEF SAYS MAY 24, 2020 SOUTH CHINA MORNING POST: https://www.scmp.com/news/china/science/article/3085825/coronavirus-conspiracy-lab-leak-claims-pure-fabrication-wuhan

    "Some of the speculation is based on an article the institute published in Nature in April 2018, saying it discovered a novel coronavirus originating from bats. In February this year, it published another article in Nature saying another novel coronavirus from bats was discovered, and the similarity between this virus and the Sars-CoV-2 is up to 96.2 per cent. “Actually, the virus mentioned in the 2018 article wasn’t SARS-CoV-2. The virus in the article mainly causes diarrhoea and death among piglets. It was later named SADS. The genome sequence of SADS is only 50 per cent similar to that of SARS-CoV-2. It’s a rather big difference,” Wang Yanyi said. The bat coronavirus that had a 96.2 per cent genomic similarity to Sars-CoV-2 was RaTG-13, Wang Yanyi said. “From the perspective of many non-professionals, the similarity rate of 96.2 per cent is a very high number. But coronavirus is one of the RNA viruses that have the largest genomes. “Take the SARS-CoV-2 for example. Its entire genome contains about 30,000 bases. The difference of a percentage of 3.8 means the difference of over 1,100 nucleotide positions. In the natural world, it takes a long period of time for a virus to naturally evolve and mutate to become Sars-CoV-2.”

    Although the researchers identified the genome sequence of RaTG-13 they did not isolate nor obtain the live virus of RaTG-13 . “Thus, there is no possibility of us leaking RaTG-13 ,” Wang Yanyi said. Wang Yanyi said the institute now had three strains of live viruses, including one that was 96 per cent genomically similar to the SARS virus. But their highest similarity to SARS-CoV-2 was only 79.8 per cent, Wang Yanyi said.

    This was a startling admission. If they had viruses 80% similar why not SARS-CoV-2?

    DASZAK ASSOCIATE "BAT LADY" PROFESSOR SHI ZHENG LI DEVELOPED SARS CoV-2 DURING A GAIN-OF-FUNCTION / GAIN-OF-THREAT EXPERIMENT

    Dr. Death Daszak has a good reason for wanting to "debunk" the idea that SARS CoV-2 was a laboratory leak because if it was he could be held responsible for a pandemic. Another part of Daszak's job is to discredit any suggestion that the Chinese had any responsibility for the pandemic even though a disease broke out in a city where controversial experiments with the virus that caused the disease were supposed to be performed in the highest level biocontainment lab in China, the BSL-4 Lab in the Wuhan Institute of Virology (WIV), but were not. Why not in some other Chinese city, village or town? Nor is it a coincidence Peter Daszak and Zhengli were inducing Gain-of-Function (GoF) mutations and Gain-of-Threat (GoT) in the SARS CoV-1 viruses around the time the first case of Covid-19 appeared. They produced Corona viruses capable of infecting human beings. In early November 2019 the virus leaked from the WIV into the streets of Wuhan. Remember we are dealing with invisible nanoparticles, not elephants escaping from the circus. It is hard to keep track of something you can't see that can be carried by a lab worker in his / her's body. SARS CoV-2 is both artificial and self-generating. It has not been found in nature as SARS CoV-1 has. Most virologists believe SARS CoV-2 comes from bats, which it originally did, and rule out laboratory manipulation. But there is also some dissention including reports the virus is more attracted to humans than to its intermediate animal hosts. By farming out GoF experiments to WIV, after they were banned in the US, Daszak started the wheels in motion that eventually produced a virus that is called Covid-19.


    Daszak's closet associate was Shi Zheng Li or Shi Zhengli or Dr. Zheng-li Shi (AKA "The Bat Lady") Director of the Centre for Emergence of Infectious Disease and Biosafety at the Wuhan Institute of Virology, a Biosafety Level Four Biocontainment Lab, where diseases with no known cures or vaccines are studied, is the number one suspect in the creation of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. According to her the pandemic is "nature's punishment for an unsanitary lifestyle." She had the skills, 24 hour access to the equipment needed to create the virus, and could have easily done it on her own. SARS-CoV-2 was created at the WIV http://www.whiov.ac.cn in a Bio-Safety Level Two laboratory (BSL-2) rather than BSL-4 LAB That is why it was able to escape.
    https://www.sciencemag.org/sites/default/files/Shi%20Zhengli%20Q%26A.pdf As Director of Biosafety SHI ZHENG LI should not have conducted her experiments in the Level 2 Bio-containment part of WIV rather than waiting until the higher security Bio Safety Level 4 lab was completed.
    https://www.sciencemag.org/sites/default/files/Shi%20Zhengli%20Q%26A.pdf


    LAB CREATION OF COVID-19 IS NOT CONSPIRACY THEORY - NO ACTORS CONSPIRED TO RELEASE THIS VIRUS - IT WAS AN ACCIDENT



    DASZAK WORKED CLOSELY WITH ZHENG-LI SHI, THE BAT LADY.

    Zheng-Li Shi, of the Wuhan Institute of Virology, IS a senior author of the draft paper (not yet peer reviewed and so far available only in preprint) that gave nCoV-2019 its identity and name. It was Ms. Shi and her collaborators who, back in 2005, showed that the SARS pathogen was a bat virus that had spilled over into people. Ms. Shi and colleagues have been tracing coronaviruses in bats since then, warning that some of them are uniquely suited to cause human pandemics. In a 2017 paper, they set out how, after nearly five years of collecting fecal samples from bats in the Yunnan cave, they had found coronaviruses in multiple individuals of four different species of bats, including one called the intermediate horseshoe bat, because of the half-oval flap of skin protruding like a saucer around its nostrils. The genome of that virus, Ms. Shi and her colleagues have now announced, is 96 percent identical to the Wuhan virus that has recently been found in humans. And those two constitute a pair distinct from all other known coronaviruses, including the one that causes SARS. In this sense, nCoV-2019 is novel — and possibly even more dangerous to humans than the other coronaviruses. I say “possibly” because so far, not only do we not know how dangerous it is, we can’t know. Outbreaks of new viral diseases are like the steel balls in a pinball machine: You can slap your flippers at them, rock the machine on its legs and bonk the balls to the jittery rings, but where they end up dropping depends on 11 levels of chance as well as on anything you do. This is true with coronaviruses in particular: They mutate often while they replicate, and can evolve as quickly as a nightmare ghoul. Peter Daszak, the president of EcoHealth Alliance, a private research organization based in New York that focuses on the connections between human and wildlife health, is one of Ms. Shi’s longtime partners. “We’ve been raising the flag on these viruses for 15 years ever since SARS.” He was a co-author of the 2005 bats-and-SARS study, and again of the 2017 paper about the multiple SARS-like coronaviruses in the Yunnan cave. Mr. Daszak told me that, during that second study, the field team took blood samples from a couple of thousand Yunnanese people, about 400 of whom lived near the cave. Roughly 3 percent of them carried antibodies against SARS-related coronaviruses. “We don’t know if they got sick. We don’t know if they were exposed as children or adults,” Mr. Daszak said. “But what it tells you is that these viruses are making the jump, repeatedly, from bats to humans.” In other words, this Wuhan emergency is no novel event. It’s part of a sequence of related contingencies that stretches back into the past and will stretch forward into the future, as long as current circumstances persist. So when you’re done worrying about this outbreak, worry about the next one. Or do something about the current circumstances.

    https://www.nytimes.com/2020/01/28/opinion/coronavirus-china.html

    THE BAT LADY WANTED TO CALL HER VIRUS TARS

    "Wuhan Institute of Virology senior scientist Zhengli Shi, who led the re-naming effort, described in an email to University of North Carolina virologist Ralph Baric, “a fierce discussion among Chinese virologists” over the name SARS-CoV-2. Deyin Guo, former dean of Wuhan University’s School of Biomedical Sciences and co-author of the name-change proposal, wrote to CSG members that they had failed to consult their naming decision with “virologists including the first discovers [sic] of the virus and the first describers of the disease” from mainland China. “It is not appropriate to use one disease-based virus’ name (like SARS-CoV) to name all other natural viruses that belong to the same species but have very different properties,” he wrote in the correspondence sent on behalf of himself and five other Chinese scientists. The group proposed an alternative name – “Transmissible acute respiratory coronavirus (TARS-CoV). Another option, they said, could be “Human acute respiratory coronavirus (HARS-CoV).”

    DASZAK CLAIMS HE WARNED THE WORLD ABOUT COVID

    In early 2018, during a meeting at the World Health Organization in Geneva, a group of experts I belong to (the R&D Blueprint) coined the term “Disease X”:

    We were referring to the next pandemic, which would be caused by an unknown, novel pathogen that hadn’t yet entered the human population. As the world stands today on the edge of the pandemic precipice, it’s worth taking a moment to consider whether Covid-19 is the disease our group was warning about. Disease X, we said back then, would likely result from a virus originating in animals and would emerge somewhere on the planet where economic development drives people and wildlife together. Disease X would probably be confused with other diseases early in the outbreak and would spread quickly and silently; exploiting networks of human travel and trade, it would reach multiple countries and thwart containment. Disease X would have a mortality rate higher than a seasonal flu but would spread as easily as the flu. It would shake financial markets even before it achieved pandemic status.

    In a nutshell, Covid-19 is Disease X. Even as there are signs that the epidemic’s spread might be slowing in China, multiple communities and countries have now reported sustained transmission in their midst. The number of confirmed cases has exploded in South Korea in recent days. In Italy, villages and towns are on lockdown, Fashion Week in Milan has been disrupted and festivals are being canceled while public health authorities search for patient zero to identify who else is likely infected and may spread the disease in Europe. Iran appears to have become a new hub of transmission. The looming pandemic will challenge us in new ways, as people try to evade quarantines, and misinformation campaigns and conspiracy theorists ply their trade in open democracies.

    But as the world struggles to respond to Covid-19, we risk missing the really big picture: Pandemics are on the rise, and we need to contain the process that drives them, not just the individual diseases.

    Plagues are not only part of our culture; they are caused by it. The Black Death spread into Europe in the mid-14th century with the growth of trade along the Silk Road. New strains of influenza have emerged from livestock farming. Ebola, SARS, MERS and now Covid-19 have been linked to wildlife. Pandemics usually begin as viruses in animals that jump to people when we make contact with them.

    These spillovers are increasing exponentially as our ecological footprint brings us closer to wildlife in remote areas and the wildlife trade brings these animals into urban centers. Unprecedented road-building, deforestation, land clearing and agricultural development, as well as globalized travel and trade, make us supremely susceptible to pathogens like coronaviruses.

    Yet the world’s strategy for dealing with pandemics is woefully inadequate. Across the board, from politicians to the public, we treat pandemics as a disaster-response issue: We wait for them to happen and hope a vaccine or drug can be developed quickly in their aftermath.

    But even as Covid-19 rages, there still is no vaccine available for the SARS virus of 2002-3, nor for HIV/AIDS or Zika or a host of emerging pathogens. The problem is that between outbreaks, the will to spend money on prevention wanes, and the market for vaccines and drugs against sporadic viral diseases isn’t enough to drive research and development. evys1bk0">During its World Health Assembly in 2016, the W.H.O. set up the R&D Blueprint to bridge this gap and announced a priority list of pathogens that most threaten global health and for which no vaccines or drugs were in the pipeline. SARS made the list, as did MERS, Nipah, Ebola and other rare but serious diseases caused by epidemic viruses. The Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations — a global partnership between public, private, philanthropic and civil society organizations launched at Davos in 2017 — stepped up to the plate and sourced funding to develop vaccines and therapeutics against some of these.

    To escape from the Age of Pandemics, we’ll need to treat them as a public health issue and start working on prevention in addition to responses. Our first goal should be to broaden our armory against potential mass epidemics. When some of us added “Disease X” to the W.H.O.’s priority list two years ago, we wanted to make the point that it’s not sufficient to develop vaccines and drugs for known agents when the next big one is likely to be a different pathogen — a virus close to SARS, say, but not close enough that the same vaccine can work against both.

    As Covid-19 strikes today and a spate of other pathogens are ready to emerge in the future, we continue to butt up against nature. Scientists estimate that there are 1.67 million unknown viruses of the type that have previously emerged in people. Discovering and sequencing them should be a priority — a simple case of “know your enemy.” In the aftermath of SARS, research on coronaviruses originating in bats has discovered more than 50 related viruses, some of which have the potential to infect people; this information can now be used to test for broad-action vaccines and drugs. Scaling up this effort to cover all viral families, as the Global Virome Project proposes to do, is a logical first step toward prevention.

    A radical shift is also needed in the way that tests, vaccines and drugs are designed so that entire groups of pathogens are targeted instead of individual pathogens that are already known. The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases in the United States is working on a universal flu vaccine that would cover all known strains of influenza; a universal coronavirus vaccine, an Ebola-virus vaccine and others will also be needed.

    With a smaller investment, we can also try to get ahead of pandemics by working with communities in hot spots of emerging diseases. Disease surveillance should be focused on farmers, rural communities and anyone who has extensive contact with wildlife, to look for unusual illnesses, test for novel pathogens and work with people to develop alternatives to high-risk activities such as the wildlife trade.

    Pandemics are like terrorist attacks: We know roughly where they originate and what’s responsible for them, but we don’t know exactly when the next one will happen. They need to be handled the same way — by identifying all possible sources and dismantling those before the next pandemic strikes.

    Peter Daszak is a disease ecologist and the president of EcoHealth Alliance, in New York.
    https://www.nytimes.com/2020/02/27/opinion/coronavirus-pandemics.html

    FOCUS ON BATS TO INTERMEDIATE HOST TO HUMAN TRANSMISSION TO OBSCURE TRUE SOURCE OF VIRUS

    Highlights
    • Pangolin-CoV is 91.02% identical to SARS-CoV-2 at the whole-genome level
    • Pangolin-CoV is the second closest relative of SARS-CoV-2 behind RaTG13
    • Five key amino acids in the RBD are consistent between Pangolin-CoV and SARS-CoV-2
    • Only SARS-CoV-2 contains a potential cleavage site for furin proteases  
    https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982220303602

    Peter Daszak, the president of EcoHealth Alliance, an organization that works on animal-to-human spillover diseases, said that accumulating evidence on pangolins made it “doubtful that this species played a role in the outbreak.” “We need to keep looking for the original reservoir” — likely a bat,” he said, adding that the potential intermediate host would likely be another mammal species that’s more widely traded in the Yunnan-to-Wuhan corridor of China. While the pangolin trade is vast, Dr. Daszak said most of it “is in their scales, dried, in which viruses would almost certainly not be able to persist.” He opposes trade in the highly endangered animal.
    https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/26/science/pangolin-coronavirus.html

    DASZAK BLAMES PHARMA FOR COVID

    Daszak describes Covid-19, the disease caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2, as exactly the kind of threat that Disease X was meant to represent: a novel, highly infectious coronavirus, with a high mortality rate, and no existing treatment or prevention. “The problem isn’t that prevention was impossible,” Daszak told me. “It was very possible. But we didn’t do it. Governments thought it was too expensive. Pharmaceutical companies operate for profit.” And the W.H.O., for the most part, had neither the funding nor the power to enforce the large-scale global collaboration necessary to w it.

    https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/21/magazine/pandemic-vaccine.html

    ECOHEALTH WORKED WITH CHINA’S WUHAN INSTITUTE OF VIROLOGY TO DISCOVER NEW CORONAVIRUSES IN BATS THAT COULD INFECT HUMANS

    “What worries me the most is that we are going to miss the next emerging disease,” said a scientist named Peter Daszak, describing his fear of a coronavirus “that moves from one part of the planet to another, wiping out people as it moves along.” Daszak became president of the EcoHealth Alliance, a nonprofit research organization focused on emerging pandemics. EcoHealth worked with China’s Wuhan Institute of Virology to study coronaviruses in bats that could infect humans, and, as Science magazine put it, “to develop tools that could help researchers create diagnostics, treatments and vaccines for human outbreaks.”

    Since 2014, the EcoHealth Alliance has received a grant from the National Institutes of Health, until its funding was abruptly cut two weeks ago The reason, as “60 Minutes” reported on Sunday evening, was a conspiracy theory spread by Representative Matt Gaetz, the Florida Republican who in March wore a gas mask on the House floor to mock concern about the new coronavirus. On April 14, Gaetz appeared on Tucker Carlson’s Fox News show and claimed that the N.I.H. grant went to the Wuhan Institute, which Gaetz intimated might have been the source of the virus — the institute may have “birthed a monster,” in his words. The first of Gaetz’s claims was flatly false, and the second unlikely; the C.I.A. has reportedly found no evidence of a link between the virus and the Wuhan lab. But at a White House briefing a few days later, a reporter from the right-wing website Newsmax told President Trump that under Barack Obama, the N.I.H. gave the Wuhan lab a $3.7 million grant. “Why would the U.S. give a grant like that to China?” she asked.

    In fact, Trump’s administration had recently renewed EcoHealth’s grant, but Trump didn’t appear to know that. “The Obama administration gave them a grant of $3.7 million?” he asked. Then he said, “We will end that grant very quickly.”

    And they did. But ending the grant dealt a blow to efforts to find treatments and a vaccine for the coronavirus. Remdesivir, the antiviral drug that’s shown some promise in Covid-19 patients, was earlier tested against bat viruses EcoHealth discovered. Months before this pandemic began, Reuters reported, the Trump administration axed the job of an epidemiologist working for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in China to help detect emerging disease outbreaks. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/05/11/opinion/coronavirus-trump.html

    PRESS RELEASE: "The grant had been given to EcoHealth Alliance, an organization with headquarters in New York that studies the potential for spillover of animal viruses to humans around the globe. The group collaborated with the Wuhan Institute of Virology, which has been at the center of conspiracy theories about how the novel coronavirus originated. Virologists and intelligence agencies agree that the virus evolved in nature and spread from animals to humans." In a previous R01 we found that bats in southern China harbor an extraordinary diversity of SARSr-CoVs, some of which can use human ACE2 to enter cells, infect humanized mouse models causing SARS-like illness, and evade available therapies or vaccines. nih.gov

    TRUMP ENDS GRANT TO ECHO HEALTH ALLIANCE

    Days after the news conference in April, the National Institutes of Health emailed Peter Daszak, the head of EcoHealth Alliance. They questioned his work with the Wuhan Institute, and after an exchange of emails, he was informed that the renewal of his grant for more than $3 million was canceled.
    https://www.nytimes.com/2020/05/21/health/wuhan-coronavirus-laboratory.html

    LOOK, FIRST, THE IDEA THAT THIS VIRUS ESCAPED FROM A LAB IS JUST PURE BALONEY. IT’S SIMPLY NOT TRUE

    "Look, first, the idea that this virus escaped from a lab is just pure baloney. It’s simply not true. I’ve been working with that lab for 15 years. And the samples collected were collected by me and others in collaboration with our Chinese colleagues. They’re some of the best scientists in the world. There was no viral isolate in the lab. There was no cultured virus that’s anything related to SARS coronavirus 2. So it’s just not possible. [Dr. Wang Yanyi said the institute now had three strains of live viruses, including one that was 96 per cent genomically similar to the Sars virus. But their highest similarity to Sars-CoV-2 was only 79.8 per cent, Wang Yanyi said.] Now, how did it get into the market? We know for sure that the Wuhan market was part of this outbreak, but we think that the first few cases weren’t in the market. And this is not uncommon. We’ve seen this with many, many other disease outbreaks, new viruses that emerge. They trickle out from rural areas through a person getting infected maybe in Hunan province and then moving into Wuhan, that maybe they’re part of the wildlife trade. Maybe a farmer got infected, or a farmer’s animals, and they were shipped into the markets. These wet markets aren’t just places to sell wildlife; they’re places where people congregate. They come in in droves. They circulate around. They’re really good places for a virus to spread. And if a person brings it in, or an animal, that virus will spread. And it looks like that’s what’s happened here."
    DEMOCRACY NOW! https://www.democracynow.org/2020/4/16/peter_daszak_coronavirus

    If the disease "trickled out from rural areas" because there are as many bats in Wuhan as there are in New York City why didn't someone in those rural areas become infected first? Why wasn't Hunan put under lock-down? "Maybe a farmer got infected, or a farmer’s animals, and they were shipped into the markets." Why did the market closest to the Wuhan Institute of Virology get infected and no other wet markets? As documented in this Data Base the virus did not originate in the market but this Chinese agent of influence sticks with a variation of the market story.

    "Before accepting the first batch of test samples from COVID-19 patients on December 30, 2019, the institute’s labs did not have the novel coronavirus and no one at the institute has contracted COVID-19 to this day. “It is impossible for the virus to leak from such a high-security laboratory,” said Yuan Zhiming, a researcher at the Wuhan Institute of Virology in an interview with CGTN on April 18. The claim that the novel coronavirus escaped from the laboratory is pure nonsense, said Peter Daszak, chairperson of EcoHealth Alliance, a New York-based non-profit organization, who has been cooperating with the Wuhan Institute of Virology for 15 years. There is no virus cultivation related to the new coronavirus in the laboratories of the Wuhan Institute of Virology, so the so-called “laboratory leak theory” is impossible, said Peter Daszak who is responsible for studying emerging infectious diseases worldwide."
    CHINA DAILY https://business.facebook.com/188625661189259/posts/3264254063626388

    Simply untrue as evidenced by the scientific papers generated by the Institute.

    NPR "The real risk is in the wild in the way people interact with wildlife around the world," says Peter Daszk, president of EcoHealth Alliance in New York City, a group that researches the origins of pandemics. "That's where we need to be focused if we want to really do something about preventing the next pandemic. We're finding 1 to 7 million people exposed to these viruses every year in Southeast Asia; that's the pathway. It's just so obvious to all of us working in the field," he says. No conspiracy theories Despite the evidence, misinformation about the virus's origins continue to proliferate. For Peter Daszak who has worked on other outbreaks, the pattern is all too familiar: "Every time we get a new virus emerging, we have people that say, 'This could have come from a lab,'" he says. What's unusual about this outbreak, he says, is that senior officials in both China and the U.S. have traded accusations that each nation is somehow responsible for the virus. "It's a real shame that the conspiracy theories can get to the level they've got with policymakers," he says. The political heat has strained the very scientific collaborations meant to detect these viruses as they emerge, warns Jonna Mazet. The PREDICT system she runs relies on the voluntary cooperation of many countries, with researchers freely sharing data about viruses they're spotting within their borders. "With this sort of blame game that's going on, we put ourselves at much more risk." Peter Daszak says the time for finger-pointing is over. "We have a bat virus in my neighborhood in New York killing people," he says. "Let's get real about this."

    DASZAK: TELEGRAPH UK CO PEOPLE BUY INTO CONSPIRACY THEORIES BECAUSE THEY’RE CONVINCING STORIES TOLD BY CHARISMATIC PEOPLE WITH JUST ENOUGH SCIENCE AND FACT TO MAKE THEM SEEM PLAUSIBLE.

    Do you think that we will ever know where Sars-Cov-2 came from – and does it matter?

    It does matter, but we're never going to know 100 per cent for sure – it's very hard to definitively prove, without being there at the time. In that space of uncertainty, conspiracy theories abound – for instance the idea it could have been bio-engineered. This is ridiculous, but it’s time consuming to fight these fires. I think it will take a couple of years to track Sar-Cov-2 properly. [in a couple of years the trail would have dried up] We need to trace back the sorts of animals that were going into Wuhan’s wet market – and the people. It’s quite possible it was circulating on a farm for weeks or months before emerging in Wuhan. Every time we've looked at the origins of the new disease in the past, we’ve found out it was actually around a lot longer than thought. Perhaps we will find it was just missed because, in most people, it just causes a cough – who in rural China doesn't have a cough every now and again?

    What do you think is driving the conspiracy theories we’ve seen over the last few months?

    People buy into conspiracy theories because they’re convincing stories told by charismatic people with just enough science and fact to make them seem plausible. The truth also tends to be less interesting. In this case, people in China are exposed to bats, who harbour viruses. It’s a lot more exciting to blame scientists inside a top secret lab that’s blocked off with barbed wire even if what is going on behind those doors is actually pretty boring. Clearly this is part of the politics now. Take the US. We're seeing conspiracy theories being elevated in a polarised press, to the point where politicians then use that to make policy decisions. Which is pretty frightening.

    Who are your heroes and villains of the pandemic?

    Then there are people like SHI ZHENGLI in China, who has stuck through death threats and a complete disparaging of her character, just to do what she does: try to save lives.

    Daszak is sticking with the Wuhan Market origination myth. "It’s a lot more exciting to blame scientists inside a top secret lab that’s blocked off with barbed wire even if what is going on behind those doors is actually pretty boring." There is only a cyclone fence around WIV and making new virus is not boring. Finally the only cases in rural China where bats abound were characterized by a mild cough or no symptoms. No rural Chinese came down with full blown Sars-Cov-2.

    THE WIV SCIENTISTS BEGAN COLLECTING BAT VIRUS SINCE THE SARS OUTBREAK 2002-2004

    2015 ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A NOVEL BAT CORONA VIRUS CLOSELY RELATED TO THE DIRECT PROGENITOR OF SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME CORONAVIRUS

    Yang XL1, Hu B1, Wang B1, Wang MN1, Zhang Q1, Zhang W1, Wu LJ1, Ge XY1, Zhang YZ2, PETER DASZAK P3, Wang LF4, SHI ZHENGLI ZL5 Author information [All worked at Wuhan Institute of Virology] Journal of Virology, Dec 29, 2015, 90(6):3253-3256 DOI: 10.1128/JVI.02582-15 PMID: 26719272 PMCID: PMC4810638 NIAID NIH HHS (2)? Grant ID: R01 / AI110964 19 publications Grant ID: R01AI110964 3 publications Google search of Grant ID: R01AI110964 takes us to NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (Dr. FAUCI)

    "We report the isolation and characterization of a novel bat coronavirus which is much closer to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in genomic sequence than others previously reported, particularly in its S gene. Cell entry and susceptibility studies indicated that this virus can use ACE2 as a receptor and infect animal and human cell lines. Our results provide further evidence of the bat origin of the SARS-CoV and highlight the likelihood of future bat coronavirus emergence in humans." We recently isolated a bat SL-CoV-1 strain (WIV1) and constructed an infectious clone of another strain (SHC014); significantly, these strains are closely related to SARS-CoV and capable of using the same cellular receptor (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 [ACE2]) as SARS-CoV-1. Despite the high similarity in genomic sequences and receptor usage of these two strains, there is still some difference between the N-terminal domains of the S proteins of SARS-CoV-1 and other SL-CoVs, indicating that other unknown SL-CoV-1s are circulating in bats." https://europepmc.org/article/pmc/pmc4810638

    MAY 13, 2020: Two Wuhan Institute of Virology scientists, Xing-Yi Ge and Zhengli-Li Shi, use reverse genetics to generate a chimeric virus (one that has been created by combining cells of more than one distinct genotype) closely resembling the novel coronavirus Covid-19: “On the basis of these findings, we synthetically re-derived an infectious full-length SHC014 recombinant virus and demonstrate robust viral replication both in vitro and in vivo.” The Nature Medicine article also mentions, “Human lungs for HAE cultures were procured under University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Institutional Review Board–approved protocols.” The Chinese government’s poor record of transparency; the fact that the Wuhan Institute of Virology, a research center with facilities in the same city where the virus first appeared, was studying and creating new dangerous pathogens, including bat coronaviruses cannot be easily dismissed.


    THE DASZAK MYTH THAT COVID-19 STARTED AT THE WUHAN WET MARKET DEBUNKED


    HARVARD UNIVERSITY STUDY ABSOLVES WUHAN MARKET TRANSMISSION

    Early investigations into SARS-CoV-2 emergence and the resulting COVID-19 disease outbreak proposed the proximate cause was a zoonotic spillover event in late November or early December 2019 in Wuhan, China. This was supported by preliminary epidemiological studies, including the initial clinical series which linked two-thirds of the identified cases to the Huanan Seafood Market in Wuhan. Critically, the study found no direct connection to the market for 14 individuals, including the first known case of COVID-19, leaving open the possibility of alternate points of origin and infection. Additionally, virologic samples of wildlife in the Huanan market could not be linked to SARS-CoV-2, suggesting transmission at the market was downstream from the spillover event. Here we consider that SARS-CoV-2 may have already been circulating in the community prior to the identification of the Huanan Market cluster. This hypothesis is supported by emerging epidemiologic and phylogenetic evidence indicating that the virus emerged in southern China and may have already spread internationally, and adapted for efficient human transmission by the time it was detected in late December.
    https://dash.harvard.edu/bitstream/handle/1/42669767/Satellite_Images_Baidu_COVID19_manuscript_preprint.pdf

    NEW YORKER MAGAZINE

    "The new virus revealed itself gradually in humans last December 2019, in Wuhan, and in January 2020 several Chinese laboratories, including SHI ZHENGLI - a Chinese virologist who researches SARS-like coronaviruses of bat origin. SHI ZHENGLI directs the Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases at the Wuhan Institute of Virology, WIV a biosafety level 4 laboratory located in Jiangxia District, Wuhan. Her lab sequenced wholly or partly the genomes of samples from different patients, including five complete genomes. SHI ZHENGLI and her colleagues made their announcement on January 23, 2020 that the virus found in those five patients was 96.2-per-cent identical to the bat coronavirus they had warned about three years earlier." [The 4% differences is thousands of genomes. The viruses were SIMILAR not identical and the virus was not an evolutionary cousin of CoV-19 nor could it cause disease in humans]. "By that time, the virus had been circulating in Wuhan for at least seven weeks, and three consequential misconceptions had been propagated, not just by political leaders but by hospital officials and the Chinese version of the C.D.C.:

  • That the outbreak had begun in the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market, which famously sold much more than seafood;
  • That the virus wasn’t dangerous
  • That it didn’t pass from person to person. https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2020/05/11/why-werent-we-ready-for-the-coronavirus


  • ZHANG LI OBJECTS TO WUHAN MARKET THEORY

    "On the second and third points, there was disagreement by clinicians treating patients, such as Zhang Li, at Wuhan’s Jinyintan Hospital, who told the Wall Street Journal in late February, “I was on alert because this was a new pneumonia and because I’d dealt with SARS.” The misconception that the market was the origin of the outbreak is implicitly contradicted by a scientific paper published in late January 2020, by a group of physicians from Wuhan and Beijing, describing clinical features of the first forty-one patients. Twenty-seven of them, the paper said, had been exposed in the Huanan market. Since a single horseshoe bat would be unlikely to infect twenty-seven people, even if they diced it into hors d’œuvres, and since by some accounts bats weren’t even on sale in the market at that time, a few scientists have speculated that there was an intermediate host animal—a snake, a pangolin, a palm civet?—in which the virus amplified itself, before that larger creature was sold or butchered. The molecular evidence for snakes is weak, pangolins are a complicated story, and civets aren’t implicated this time."


    DANIEL LUCEY

    DANIEL LUCEY

    "An American physician and scholar Daniel R. Lucey (who had also worked the SARS outbreak, in Guangzhou, Hong Kong, and Toronto) wondered about the fourteen other early patients. He noticed that the first of them, falling sick on December 1, 2019 had no direct or secondary contact with the market. That meant, given the incubation period, that the virus must have been circulating in Wuhan outside the market since November 2020. This doesn’t controvert the likelihood of the virus originating in a bat, but it suggests that perhaps it went into the Huanan market, as well as coming out of it, in humans." SARS-CoV-2 is a subtle bug."
    https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(20)30183-5/fulltext#bib35

    "The logic seems straightforward. But a more complete analysis of early cases suggests that locating the origin of the virus may not be so simple. A study published in the found that of the first 425 patients, only 45 percent had connections to the market. A separate Jan. 24, 2020 analysis published in the Lancet found that three of the first four cases — including the first known case — did not have market links [and neither did 13 of the first 41 confirmed cases]."

    Jan. 24, 2020 analysis published in the Lancet: "From Jan 10, 2020, we enrolled a family of six patients who travelled to Wuhan from Shenzhen between Dec 29, 2019 and Jan 4, 2020. Of six family members who travelled to Wuhan, five were identified as infected with the novel coronavirus. Additionally, one family member, who did not travel to Wuhan, became infected with the virus after several days of contact with four of the family members. None of the family members had contacts with Wuhan markets or animals, although two had visited a Wuhan hospital. Five family members (aged 36–66 years) presented with fever, upper or lower respiratory tract symptoms, or diarrhoea, or a combination of these 3–6 days after exposure. They presented to our hospital (The University of Hong Kong-Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen) 6–10 days after symptom onset. They and one asymptomatic child (aged 10 years) had radiological ground-glass lung opacities."
    New England Journal of Medicine https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa2001316

    SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN

    "Scientific American quotes Dr. Kevin Olival Vice President for Research at EcoHealth Alliance a group that has been implicated in funding the pandemic: "How and where the SARS-CoV-2 spillover occurred is not known for certain. There was an early suspicion that the initial outbreak could have started at the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market in Wuhan, which was closed on January 1 2020. But “we don’t know if the spillover happened outside the market and then began spreading after it was brought there,” says. It is also unclear if there was an intermediate animal host between the disease-carrying bats and humans." [Everything is unclear. ] Dr. Olival’s role as Senior Research Scientist at EcoHealth Alliance involves coordinating the modeling and analytics research; integrating evolutionary and ecological theories to understand the drivers of disease emergence; and managing zoonotic disease surveillance efforts in Thailand and Indonesia under the USAID PREDICT project.

    In an effort to identify and respond to new zoonotic diseases before they spread to humans, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) established its Emerging Pandemic Threats (EPT) program. The EPT program consists of four projects: PREDICT, RESPOND, IDENTIFY, and PREVENT. The PREDICT project seeks to identify new emerging infectious diseases that could become a threat to human health. PREDICT partners locate their research in geographic "hotspots" and focus on wildlife that are most likely to carry zoonotic diseases - animals such as bats, rodents, and nonhuman primates.
    https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/why-the-coronavirus-slipped-past-disease-detective

    Despite referencing Scientific American and NEJM to show the virus didn't start at the market the Washington Post claimed it was doubtful the virus orginated at WEV. Why? "conspiracy theories." The Covid-19 Research Institute did not unearth any conspiracy to release the virus, instead it discovered evidence that the virus, which was created naturally in bats, altered using GAIN-OF-FUNCTION / GAIN-OF-THREAT and/or RECOMBINANT techniques by microbiologists who made the virus more deadly and transmissible than previous SARS Corona virus and accidentally leaked. This genetic engineering also gave the virus the ability to allow it to transmit a plethora of diseases, evade detection and do a whole lot of other things viruses found in nature don't do.









    THE VIRUS INFECTED A MARKET 30 KILOMETERS FROM THE HIGHEST CONTAINMENT LABORATORY IN CHINA

    A shrimp vendor Wei Guixian in the Wuhan Market was first thought to be patient zero. Wei claimed she got the disease from a dirty toilet seat used by a meat vendor, not from eating uncooked bats. In the United States the story was spread by the Wall Street Journal but it originated in China in a publication called The Paper. The NYT reported: "The Paper is different from BuzzFeed, Vice and other digital voices that have risen up to challenge traditional media: It is overseen by the Chinese Communist Party, prospering at a time when China’s leaders are increasingly restricting what their people read and watch."
    https://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/06/business/international/china-media-the-paper-english.html

    According to a statement from the Wuhan Municipal Health Commission on December 31, Ms Wei was one of the first 27 patients diagnosed with COVID-19, and one of the 24 cases who had direct links to the Huanan Market but not patient ZERO whose identity has not been revealed. Dr. Wu Wenjuan, who treated patient ZERO said he lived four or five bus stations from the market which really tells us nothing. For all we know patient ZERO could have lived next door to WIV or worked there disposing of biohazardous waste.

    PATIENT ZERO

    When asked whether the first diagnosed elderly person has any relatives related to the Wuhan Virus Research Institute or the South China Seafood Market, Director Wu Wenjuan of Jinyintan Hospital said that he cannot "conclude" now. Obviously, we cannot have any definite judgment before there is no conclusive evidence. The Wuhan Municipal Health and Health Commission once pointed out in a circular that the first new coronary pneumonia case occurred on December 8 last year, but an international authoritative medical journal "The Lancet" (The Lancet) published on January 24 by the new crown The paper written by Huang Zhaolin, deputy director of Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital and other patients with severe pneumonia, pushed the onset time of the first patient to December 1st. The paper was written by nearly 30 researchers from Chinese medical institutions, and a large number of them are working on the front line of treating new coronary patients. Dr. Wu Wenjuan, director of the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of Jinyintan Hospital and one of the authors of the above-mentioned paper, disclosed to the BBC on Monday (February 17) that the patient who developed on December 1 was a patient over 70 years old man. The time of onset on December 1 was the conclusion drawn from the recall of comprehensive family members through an epidemiological survey. This patient has a little cerebral infarction and Alzheimer's disease, and the condition is very bad when he is delivered," Wu Wenjuan said. She refused to disclose the patient's last name. It is reported that after the onset of the disease, the patient was first sent to another hospital in Wuhan, but as the condition deteriorated, he was transferred to Jinyintan Hospital on December 29. At that time, Huang Chaolin and Wu Wenjuan were on the scene. Wu Wenjuan said that the old man had been sick at home before and had not been to the South China Seafood Market, which is a trading market in Wuhan selling seafood and game products. As a large number of merchants in this market became ill at the beginning of the outbreak, it was once considered as the origin of the outbreak. "He lives far away from the four or five stations (bus stops) of the seafood market," Wu Wenjuan said. "And because he is sick, he basically doesn't go out."According to a paper published in The Lancet, none of the family members of the old man developed fever or respiratory symptoms after the onset of illness, and no epidemiological links were found between him and subsequent patients. Only 10 days after his onset, three other people had symptoms, and two of them had no history of exposure to the South China Seafood Market. For this patient who has been at home for a long time and has never been to the South China Seafood Market, why can he be infected with this newly discovered virus? Is there any other way of infection? Wu Wenjuan did not respond directly. "What you are asking is exactly the direction of our next research," she said. But what is obvious is that this is in conflict with the widespread assumption that the epidemic is caused by wild animals directly spreading the virus to the seafood market in South China.

    https://www.bbc.com/zhongwen/trad/chinese-news-51540821


    THE SARS ESCAPE

    It is possible for viruses to escape from a laboratory by infecting a worker. In the early 2000s, there were three documented cases of the original SARS virus escaping from a laboratory environment, according to Lim Poh Lian, a senior consultant at the National Centre for Infectious Diseases in Singapore. In the case of a 2003 incident in Singapore, a student became infected with SARS after his samples of West Nile virus were cross-contaminated with live SARS virus. That virus was being grown in relatively large quantities in the lab for studies on the disease, and the student was not properly trained in safety procedures for the lab he was working in. https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2020/04/23/841729646/virus-researchers-cast-doubt-on-theory-of-coronavirus-lab-accident

    THE SMALLPOX ESCAPE

    "The modern era of pathogen releases can be said to have begun in 1973 in England, when a lab assistant working with smallpox infected herself and spread it to three others, two of whom died. Four years later, smallpox was almost officially eradicated from the wild, yet the following year a medical photographer at Birmingham Medical School mysteriously died of the disease. It turned out that researchers in another part of the building were experimenting with smallpox, and the virus most likely reached the photographer through the ventilation system. Mother Jones

    THE ANTHRAX ESCAPE

    The Soviets got their moment in 1979, when a cloud of anthrax spores escaped a secret bioweapons lab when an air filter wasn’t properly replaced after maintenance. The spores killed at least 66 people in the adjacent town of Sverdlovsk. The Soviets aggressively denied it, but American intelligence was suspicious. The incident was only confirmed in 1992, after the fall of the Soviet Union, when President Boris Yeltsin invited an independent team of scientists to investigate. Using 2010 data from the CDC, one expert estimated that somewhere in the United States, “a breach of containment happens about twice weekly.” Some have involved deadly agents including anthrax, avian flu, and Ebola. Most incidents are minor, but not all. Take two examples at lower-risk labs: In 2009, a researcher at the University of Chicago died after being infected by a weakened strain of plague. In 2012, a postdoc at San Francisco’s VA Medical Center came down with meningitis from his lab. While having dinner with friends, he began to feel dizzy. The next day, he was covered in a rash and was taken to the hospital, where he died.

    In 2004, according to Scientific American, a team from the WIV led by virologist SHI ZHENGLI began visiting caves in southern China, hoping to find the cause of SARS. They captured bats and took blood, saliva, and fecal samples, and tested the samples for viruses back in Wuhan. In 2009, the lab began working with PREDICT, a new program established at USAID to train and fund scientists to test “high-risk” areas for new viruses. By identifying unknown viruses before they spilled over into humans—to “find them before they find us,” as SHI ZHENGLI put it—researchers hoped to establish an early-warning system. PREDICT worked in dozens of countries, but the WIV was one of its linchpins, and SHI ZHENGLI became famous as China’s “Bat Woman.”

    In 2013, the WIV discovered SARS-CoV, the cause of SARS, in a cave in Yunnan Province. SHI ZHENGLI team found that the bats of southern China were full of viruses, especially coronaviruses. Over 10 years, her team collected more than 10,000 samples from bats in the region and discovered hundreds of new coronaviruses, including some with the ability to infect humans. Many bats harbored multiple viruses, and there were alarming signs that the viruses were recombining with each other—swapping chunks of genetic code as they replicated, producing novel viruses with new abilities. “It is highly likely that future SARS- or MERS-like coronavirus outbreaks will originate from bats, and there is an increased probability that this will occur in China,” SHI ZHENGLI and her colleagues wrote in a 2019 paper that now seems chillingly prescient. “Therefore, the investigation of bat coronaviruses becomes an urgent issue for the detection of early warning signs.” “I had never expected this kind of thing to happen in Wuhan, in central China,” she told Scientific American. Wuhan is a skyscraper-filled metropolis of 11 million people hundreds of miles from the bat-friendly caves of southern China. Shi asked herself, “Could they have come from our lab?” SHI ZHENGLI described the next few weeks as the most stressful of her life. She frantically searched her lab’s records, looking for signs of an accident or inappropriate disposal, only relaxing once the genetic code of the new virus was sequenced and didn’t match the coronaviruses in her lab. “That really took a load off my mind,” she said. “I had not slept a wink for days.” Shi’s lab shouldn’t be completely cleared of possible blame until an independent body can review the lab’s records, which the Chinese government shows no signs of releasing. SHI ZHENGLI work at the time involved studying Corona viruses:

    During the past two decades, three zoonotic coronaviruses have been identified as the cause of large-scale disease outbreaks–Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), and Swine Acute Diarrhea Syndrome (SADS). SARS and MERS emerged in 2003 and 2012, respectively, and caused a worldwide pandemic that claimed thousands of human lives, while SADS struck the swine industry in 2017. They have common characteristics, such as they are all highly pathogenic to humans or livestock, their agents originated from bats, and two of them originated in China. Thus, it is highly likely that future SARS- or MERS-like coronavirus outbreaks will originate from bats, and there is an increased probability that this will occur in China. Therefore, the investigation of bat coronaviruses becomes an urgent issue for the detection of early warning signs, which in turn minimizes the impact of such future outbreaks in China. The purpose of the review is to summarize the current knowledge on viral diversity, reservoir hosts, and the geographical distributions of bat coronaviruses in China, and eventually we aim to predict virus hotspots and their cross-species transmission potential.

    In any case, while Shi’s comments were meant to be reassuring, they actually implied something unsettling. Most of us mistakenly believe that the risk of a biolab-based pandemic is infinitesimal. But clearly SHI ZHENGLI didn’t rule out an accidental escape from her lab. And, it turns out, she’s not alone. As much as biosecurity experts worry about nature as the source of the next pandemic, they also have grave concerns about labs.

    HOW THE SARS COV-2 HIGH RATE OF REPLICATION

    "SARS-CoV-2 infection have caused global pandemic and claimed over 5,000,000 tolls1–4. Although the genetic sequences of their etiologic viruses are of high homology, the clinical and pathological characteristics of COVID-19 significantly differ from SARS5,6. Especially, it seems that SARS-CoV-2 undergoes vast replication in vivo without being effectively monitored by anti-viral immunity.

    THE AUSTRALIAN STUDY: SPIKE PROTEIN OPTIMIZED TO BIND TO HUMAN ACE2. IN SILICO COMPARISON OF SPIKE PROTEIN-ACE2 BINDING AFFINITIES ACROSS SPECIES; SIGNIFICANCE FOR THE POSSIBLE ORIGIN OF THE SARS-COV-2 VIRUS

  • Sakshi Piplani1,2,
  • Puneet Kumar Singh2
  • David A. Winkler3-6
  • Nikolai Petrovsky1,2*
  • 1 College of Medicine and Public Health, Flinders University, Bedford Park 5046, Australia
  • 2 Vaxine Pty Ltd, 11 Walkley Avenue, Warradale 5046, Australia
  • 3 La Trobe University, Kingsbury Drive, Bundoora 3042, Australia
  • 4 Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Parkville 3052, Australia
  • 5 School of Pharmacy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD. UK
  • 6 CSIRO Data61, Pullenvale 4069, Australia

    ANOTHER POSSIBILITY WHICH STILL CANNOT BE EXCLUDED IS THAT SARSCOV-2 WAS CREATED BY A RECOMBINATION EVENT THAT OCCURRED INADVERTENTLY OR CONSCIOUSLY IN A LABORATORY HANDLING CORONAVIRUSES, WITH THE NEW VIRUS THEN ACCIDENTALLY RELEASED INTO THE LOCAL HUMAN POPULATION.

    "Notably, this approach surprisingly revealed that the binding energy between SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and ACE2 was highest for humans out of all species tested, suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 spike protein is uniquely evolved to bind and infect cells expressing human ACE2. This finding is particularly surprising as, typically, a virus would be expected to have highest affinity for the receptor in its original host species, e.g. bat, with a lower initial binding affinity for the receptor of any new host, e.g. humans. However, in this case, the affinity of SARS-CoV-2 is higher for humans than for the putative original host species, bats, or for any potential intermediary host species. Although bats carry many coronaviruses including SARS-CoV, a relative of SARS-CoV-2, direct evidence for existence of SARS-CoV-2 in bats has not been found. As highlighted by our data, the binding strength of SARS-CoV-2 for bat ACE2 is considerably lower than for human ACE2, suggesting that even if SARS-CoV-2 did originally arise from a bat precursor it must later have adapted its spike protein to optimise its binding to human ACE2. There is no current explanation for how, when or where this might have happened. Instances of direct human infection by coronaviruses or other bat viruses is rare with transmission typically involving an intermediate host. For example, lyssaviruses such as Hendra are periodically transmitted from bats to horses and then to humans who contact the infected horse. Similarly, SARS-CoV was shown to be transmitted from bats to civet cats and from them to humans. To date, a virus identical to SARS-CoV-2 has not been identified in bats or any other non-human species, making its origins unclear. To date, the most closely related coronavirus to SARS-CoV-2, is the bat coronavirus, BatCoV RaTG1, which has 96% whole-genome identity to SARS-CoV-2. 50. The fact that SARS-CoV-2 has also not been found in any likely intermediate host raises questions of the origins of the original SARS-CoV-2." https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/2005/2005.06199.pdf

    “We’re all wondering where this virus came from, and we can see from the new sequence and the sequences that we’ve already had for coronaviruses that it’s likely to be a recombinant of a number of different coronaviruses that are known,” says Racheal Roper https://microbiology-immunology.ecu.edu/rachel-l-roper She adds that this finding could help researchers understand how coronaviruses can jump into humans—2019-nCoV is the third to do so in the last 17 years. “This may continue, so the more we know about these the better.” “The authors talk about it transmitting finally to humans, but we don’t know that this is its final jump. It could transmit to cats or dogs and then circulate back to humans,” says Roper. “We were able to control and stop SARS because it didn’t get into any other animals. . . . Hopefully it won’t happen, but we shouldn’t assume that it’s just going to stop with us.”

    NPR: VIRUS IS TO DEADLY TO BE COMPUTER GENERATED

    Regardless, genetic analysis shows the virus began to spread sometime in the fall or winter of 2019, says Robert Garry, a microbiologist at Tulane University. Those same analyses refuted an earlier theory that the virus was genetically engineered in a laboratory. Garry says the reason is simple — the virus infects people in a way that scientists had never seen before: "The virus is just really too good at what it's doing," he says. "No human using a computer could do this. This is very clearly a natural process that occurred." In addition, he says, there are no signs of human genetic modification in the virus's code. Although the exact route from nature to people remains a mystery, bats are the likely reservoir for the virus, says Simon Anthony, a researcher at Columbia University who specializes in emerging infectious diseases. Bats are believed to be the carriers of two other coronavirus diseases that can infect people: SARS, which was first identified in Asia in 2003, and MERS, which was first reported in the Middle East in 2012.
    https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2020/01/22/798277557/how-does-wuhan-coronavirus-compare-to-mers-sars-and-the-common-cold

    THE FRENCH STARTED THE WIV

    In 2004, the Chinese and French governments signed a cooperation agreement on fighting and preventing new diseases, stressing the active cooperation between China and France in the construction of high-level biosafety laboratories and the system construction of biosafety laws and regulations etc. In order to implement the spirit of Sino-French agreement, in 2005, Wuhan Institute of Virology undertook the task of building a national biosafety laboratory of Wuhan, Chinese Academy of Sciences. With nearly 10 years of unremitting efforts, the laboratory completed the physical facilities in January 2015. In August 2016, it obtained the recognition and authentication certificate for the critical protection equipment installation and commissioning.

    ISABELLE LASSERRE

    DEFENSE, EXTERNAL INTELLIGENCE (DGSE) AND FOREIGN AFFAIRS WERE STANDING AGAINST A PROJECT THAT COULD SERVE A MILITARY BACTERIOLOGICAL WEAPON PROGRAM.

    At the time when it was launched by Jacques Chirac and his Prime Minister Jean-Pierre Raffarin, in 2004, the P4 was at the heart of a showdown in France. Those in favor, politicians and scientists, said that China, which had barely emerged from SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome), should be helped to defend itself against epidemics. But Defense, External Intelligence (DGSE) and Foreign Affairs were standing against a project that they believed could serve a military bacteriological weapon program. They suspected that Beijing would want to equip itself with five or seven P4 laboratories, including two for military purposes. "We knew the risks involved and thought that the Chinese would control everything and quickly eject us from the project. We believed that providing this cutting-edge technology to a country with an infinite power agenda risked exposing France in return, ”said a diplomat who followed the case closely. According to a high-ranking source, the project would also have provoked a crisis in Pasteur, where the Assembly of the Hundred, the parliament of the Institute, would have denounced the access authorized by the contract to some of its databases, before see the decision imposed by its management. " There were arguments, because China has a real medical problem with epidemics and France had an advantage in this technology very advanced. But the Chinese know how to copy and duplicate. And we thought the P4 would give China instruments if it ever wanted to start a biological weapons program, "said a senior diplomat, who was in strategic affairs at the time. French scholars played a big role in pushing the project. " There was a blindness of the scientific community which refused to see the reality of the Chinese system. Researchers believed that openness to capitalism would transform China into a normal country. It was to forget that it remained above all a Leninist state in which science is not independent but directed by the Communist Party ", explains Valérie Niquet, specialist in Asia at the Foundation for Strategic Research (FRS). Since the start of the epidemic, the party and the state have been involved in research, manipulating dates and rewriting the history of the coronavirus.
    https://www.cdc.gov/sars/about/fs-sars.html

    CHINESE RESPONSE TO ISABELLE LASSERRE

    On April 21, Le Figaro published an article "Investigation: How the P4 laboratory in Wuhan, exported by France, escaped all control" signed by Isabelle Lasserre. Some comments in the article are shocking. The Chinese Embassy in France wants to question them. She wrote in the article that: "On February 16, Chinese state media also reported deficiencies. They claimed in particular that researchers threw laboratory materials down the drain, after experimentation and without having subjected them to the specific treatment intended for biological discharges. They also pointed out that a certain number of researchers, to make ends meet, were selling laboratory animals which had undergone experiments on the markets of Wuhan. As anyone with common sense knows very well, a high-level laboratory is endowed with rigorous management systems and codes of conduct for scientific research, how is it possible that the basic faults described in the article appear? This is an extremely serious problem which seriously damages the reputation of Chinese research institutions and the national image of China. We ask the journalist to tell her readers specifically that her comments come from which media and which reports. Otherwise, they can only be considered as lies. The author of the text made many criticisms of the joint construction of the P4 laboratory in Wuhan by China and France. It is his personal opinion, in which the Embassy does not intervene. But the descriptions in the article are very likely to misinform readers, and do not promote mutual knowledge of the Chinese and French peoples and friendly cooperation between the two countries. The Chinese Embassy in France recommends the video of an interview given by Mr. Yuan Zhiming, Director of the Wuhan branch of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and researcher at the Wuhan Institute of Virology, on April 20 at CGTN. The author of the article could undoubtedly obtain useful information in this, which would help him to know the question concerned in a more complete and more precise way.

    The core of the Wuhan BSL-4 Laboratory is surrounded by stainless-steel walls, forming a "box-within-a-box" structure. The core lab enclosure can ensure sufficient structural strength and tightness to form a static seal. The lab's dynamic seal uses negative pressure technology to ensure a strict and orderly pressure gradient between the functional areas, thereby effectively preventing any air contaminated by infectious pathogenic microorganisms from spreading to areas with low contamination probability and to the external environment spreading.
    https://www.biospace.com/article/releases/the-wuhan-institute-of-virology-s-vital-role-in-fighting-covid-19

    Air emitted from the lab is filtered and discharged by two-stage high-efficiency filters to ensure the safety of the emissions. Waste water is discharged after high-temperature treatment in a sewage treatment system. Polluted waste in the lab is subjected to high-temperature and high-pressure treatment by double-door autoclaves, and then safely removed and delivered to a centralized medical waste disposal unit with corresponding qualifications for disposal. Whenever personnel pass through the entrance and exit channels, their positive pressure protective suits are chemically disinfected using the chemical showers to ensure the safety of the passageways. The above technical protection measures ensure that viruses inside the lab cannot escape.

    Plum Island Reports Disease Outbreak By John Rather Aug. 22, 2004 THE Department of Homeland Security confirmed last week that the highly contagious foot-and-mouth virus had briefly spread within the Plum Island Animal Disease Center in two previously undisclosed incidents earlier this summer. A spokesman for the department, which took over the high-security laboratory from the Department of Agriculture in June 2003, said safety procedures had been stepped up and laboratory rooms disinfected after the incidents, which occurred on June 24 and July 19.

    THE CHINESE COMMUNIST PARTY (CCP) POLITICAL OPERATIVE AT WIV

    Communism found a receptive home in mainland China as most of the people there, with some exceptions, have a similar genetic heritage which makes them into faceless robots who can churn out uniform products because of this genetic conformity. E.G. most have black hair and dark eyes. The WIV is run by Deputy Secretary of the Party Committee HE was the chairman of the corporate trade union of Wuhan Branch from Jan. 2004 to Sep. 2013, and the Corporate Secretary of the Party at Wuhan Branch from Oct. 2005 to Jul. 2013. Since the Aug. of 2013, he has been the deputy director general of Wuhan Institute of Virology, CAS. This CCP apparatchik runs the institute and if anyone steps out of line they are either imprisoned, sent to a "re-grooving" institute or killed.

    Changcai HE: http://english.whiov.cas.cn/About_Us2016/Directors2016

    CHICOM DISINFORMATION CAMPAIGN

    Academician Xi Chong Nanshan has already delivered a speech on TV. Wuhan New Coronavirus is not the true source of the virus. There are 5 new coronavirus series, ABCDE bat sleeve BAT (H52) and then mutates H53> The C family pathogens in China, with variants of C56 and MV2, spread throughout the world. But the United States had five major families of ABCDE two years ago, the US Government CDC (Center Disease of Control) Concealing the illness, when a military contest was held in Wuhan in November, two American soldiers went to the Wuhan Hospital in Hubei to catch a cold. It was the first hospital in Wuhan, China, which discovered a coronavirus transmission in early December (Golden Eagle) Tan Hospital and Wuhan Central Hospital). From this calculation, it should be that the US soldiers brought the virus into Wuhan in the Wuhan military competition, and the virus series H1 (referred to as the son) came to China. If China wants to check the origin of these two American blood sources, we can confirm the source. The US should have ABCDE two years ago (H13, H3, H1, H56, MV2) These five kinds of viruses have hundreds of pathogens in bats. Among them, the United States has mutated five kinds of pathogens. The United States has always been a stable fact. This is why the U.S. government is in a hurry to send them Americans back to the United States, and is afraid to find pathogens from Americans. In this way, the outbreak of the new coronavirus can rest on the Chinese. The viruses in the Middle East are MV2 and H56. No such virus has been detected in China. The seriously ill Iranians said that they had never been to China and had no Chinese friends, but had been to the United States. The world knows that many wealthy people in Middle Eastern countries buy properties in the United States, and their children are also studying in the United States. I am going to write this article today and spread it to the seven major media in the world. My title will read "Americans are the tumors of the world's viruses." The Washington Post published the title of the article last month, stating "Chinese are sick men of East Asia", the birthplace of the virus. I let the world see the hypocrisy, viciousness, loss of conscience, and the spread of the virus to people all over the world.

    THE STATE DEPARTMENT CABLES INDICATE A LACK OF TRAINED TECHNICIANS AT WIV LACK OF CELL PHONE ACTIVITY AT WIV

    January 19, 2018 U.S. Embassy in Beijing takes unusual step of repeatedly sending U.S. science diplomats to the Wuhan Institute of Virology. One visit raises so many red flags, that a cable is sent noting, “a serious shortage of appropriately trained technicians and investigators needed to safely operate this high-containment laboratory.”

    “During interactions with scientists at the WIV laboratory, they noted the new lab has a serious shortage of appropriately trained technicians and investigators needed to safely operate this high-containment laboratory, the researchers also showed that various SARS-like coronaviruses can interact with ACE2, the human receptor identified for SARS-coronavirus. This finding strongly suggests that SARS-like coronaviruses from bats can be transmitted to humans to cause SARS-like diseases. From a public health perspective, this makes the continued surveillance of SARS-like coronaviruses in bats and study of the animal-human interface critical to future emerging coronavirus outbreak prediction and prevention.” ( Jan. 19, 2018, DOS cable, drafted by two officials from the embassy’s environment, science and health sections who met with the WIV scientists.)

    March 27, 2018 The Wuhan Institute of Virology issues a news release in English after the last of the U.S. Embassy visits. The news release was removed the week of April 6, 2020, although it remains archived on the internet.

    "The Chinese researchers at WIV were receiving assistance from the Galveston National Laboratory at the University of Texas Medical Branch and other U.S. organizations, but the Chinese requested additional help. The cables argued that the United States should give the Wuhan lab further support, mainly because its research on bat coronaviruses was important but also dangerous." washingtonpost.com/opinions/2020/04/14/state-department-cables-warned-safety-issues-wuhan-lab-studying-bat-coronaviruses/ In 2020 WIV tried to recruit a new staff http://english.whiov.cas.cn

    A report — obtained by the London-based NBC News Verification Unit — says there was no cellphone activity in a high-security portion of the Wuhan Institute of Virology from Oct. 7 through Oct. 24, 2019, and that there may have been a "hazardous event" sometime between Oct. 6 2019 and Oct. 11 2019. "Would be interesting if someone analyzed commercial telemetry data at & near Wuhan lab from Oct-Dec 2019," Marco Rubio tweeted. "If it shows dramatic drop off in activity compared to previous 18 months it would be a strong indication of an incident at lab & of when it happened."
    https://www.documentcloud.org/documents/6884792-MACE-E-PAI-COVID-19-ANALYSIS-Redacted.html

    November 18, 2019 The Wuhan Institute of Virology posts a job opening that seeks to fill “1-2 post-doctoral fellows” who will “take bats as the research object and provide answers regarding the molecular mechanism that can co-exist with Ebola and SARS-associated coronaviruses for a long time without causing disease, and its relationship with flight (aerosols) and longevity. Virology, immunology cell biology and multiple comics (refers to biological science study fields that end with -omics) are used to compare the differences between humans and other mammals.” Candidates are to send their resumes to Peng Zhou (??) Ph.D., the “Leader of the Bat Virus Infection and Immunization Group” at the Wuhan Institute of Virology.

    WIV WAS CALLING IN OUTSIDERS TO HELP WITH BIOSAFETY

    Relying on the major science and technology infrastructure, this project aims to cultivate national high-level biosafety talents, to output significant scientific and technological breakthroughs and achievements, and to promote the scientific and technological support capabilities for biosafety and public health. According to the scientific and technological development programs of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) and Wuhan Institute of Virology (WIV), CAS, the Call Announcement 2020 of Advanced Customer Cultivation Project of Wuhan National Biosafety Laboratory, CAS is released. Please apply for the project accordingly. The specific contents are as below...The research achievements attained during the project implementation, including theses, monographs, patents, software and database etc. shall be marked with “Funded by Advanced Customer Cultivation Project of Wuhan National Biosafety Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences”. Any achievements unmarked will not be counted in the assessment. Wuhan Institute of Virology Chinese Academy of Sciences Jan 15th, 2020
    http://english.whiov.cas.cn/Notice2016/202001/t20200115_229449.html

    RECTIFICATION OF LAB THAT MAPPED GENOME

    The Shanghai laboratory where researchers published the world’s first genome sequence of the deadly coronavirus that causes Covid-19 has been shut down. The laboratory at the Shanghai Public Health Clinical Centre was ordered to close for “rectification” on January 12, 2020 a day after Professor Zhang Yongzhen’s team published the genome sequence on open platforms. It closed temporarily the following day.

    WORLD LEADERS HAVE THEIR DOUBTS ABOUT THE ORIGIN OF THE VIRUS

    “There are clearly questions that need to be answered about the origin and spread of the virus, not least so we can ensure that we are better prepared for future global pandemics. This work will need to be done with all of our international partners” - spokesman for UK prime minister Boris Johnson who contracted the virus.


    POMPEO SAYS VIRUS WAS FROM LAB THEN WALKS IT BACK

    https://www.breitbart.com/politics/2020/05/16/exclusive-secretary-pompeo-president-trump-committed-to-holding-chinese-communist-party-accountable-for-coronavirus-pandemic

    https://www.documentcloud.org/documents/6884792-MACE-E-PAI-COVID-19-ANALYSIS-Redacted.html

    “Sadly, we’re not much further than we were weeks and weeks ago,” Pompeo said when asked how the investigation is going. “The Chinese Communist Party has relentlessly deceived and denied information to the west. We have repeatedly asked to have teams go in and assist them to identify where the virus originated. We know it began in Wuhan, but we don’t know from where or from whom, and those are important things. Your listeners need to know. We still need to know that so we can break the code on this thing. One of the key facts for scientists and epidemiologists to build out vaccines and therapeutics and to identify how this was ultimately delivered to the world. You have to know where patient zero began and how patient zero became infected. Yet, the Chinese Communist Party has at every turn attempted to manage the World Health Organization to manage the information flow, to punish doctors who wanted to talk about this publicly, to undermine the central understandings of transparency that every country has a responsibility to deliver. As a result of that, we still have so many unanswered questions. We, the United States, the world, have so many unanswered questions that are incredibly important so we can address these issues going forward to keep the American people safe. This isn’t political. This isn’t aimed at achieving a political victory. It’s aimed squarely at getting the right health outcomes and saving lives across the world.”

    TRUMP WANTED AN INVESTIGATION OF THE ORIGIN OF THE VIRUS

    "In early January, for example, China ordered samples of the virus to be destroyed, depriving the world of critical information. Even now, China continues to undermine the International Health Regulations by refusing to share accurate and timely data, viral samples and isolates, and by withholding vital information about the virus and its origins. And, to this day, China continues to deny international access to their scientists and relevant facilities, all while casting blame widely and recklessly and censoring its own experts...The World Health Organization has failed to publicly call on China to allow for an independent investigation into the origins of the virus, despite the recent endorsement for doing so by its own Emergency Committee. The World Health Organization's failure to do so has prompted World Health Organization member states to adopt the "COVID-19 Response" Resolution at this year's World Health Assembly, which echoes the call by the United States and so many others for an impartial, independent, and comprehensive review of how the World Health Organization handled the crisis. The resolution also calls for an investigation into the origins of the virus, which is necessary for the world to understand how best to counter the disease."


    CHI COM AGENT OF INFLUENCE PETER DASZAK HEADED THE W.HO. TEAM THAT SUGGESTED COVID-19 ORIGINATED IN BARCELONA AND ENTERED CHINA VIA FROZEN MEAT. THIS ABSURD THEORY IS MORE PROOF THAT THE CHI COMS ARE COVERING UP FOR A LAB LEAK. HE IS NOT THE FIRST "ACADEMIC" TO BE ON THE CCP'S PAD

    THE BARCELONA BEEF THEORY W.H.O. LEGITIMATIZED

    THE WALL STREET JOURNAL: HOW THE WHO'S HUNT FOR COVID'S ORIGINS STUMBLED IN CHINA

    One member of the team of experts, Peter Daszak, a British disease ecologist who runs EcoHealth Alliance, a New York-based pandemic prevention group, pushed back against the criticism of the team’s work and of China’s level of cooperation. He said the lab leak hypothesis was “political from the start.” Dr. Daszak added that the W.H.O. team was not restricted in its interviews with scientists who were on the ground at the start of the pandemic. He himself has been accused of having a conflict of interest because of his past research on coronaviruses with the Wuhan Institute of Virology, which, he said, was what a disease ecologist should be doing.“We were in the right place because we knew that there was a risk of the virus emerging,” said Dr. Daszak. “We were working there with this exact viral group and it happened.”
    https://www.nytimes.com/2021/03/29/world/asia/china-virus-WHO-report.htm

    It included one scientist from the U.S.: Peter Daszak, a zoologist and president of EcoHealth Alliance, a New York-based nonprofit. Dr. Daszak had experience hunting for the origins of emerging human viruses in animals, including 16 years working with researchers in China. He was on a team that pinpointed bats as the source of the coronavirus behind SARS. Some U.S. officials and scientists were concerned some of his nonprofit’s work in China posed a conflict of interest. EcoHealth had in past years provided funding to the Wuhan Institute of Virology as part of a grant from the U.S. National Institutes of Health. The WIV is at the center of assertions by the Trump administration that the pandemic virus could have come from a lab, and Dr. Daszak had publicly dismissed the possibility. In applying for a spot on the team, Dr. Daszak said, he described his expertise and provided a conflict-of-interest statement to the WHO including his work with the WIV. “I’m known to WHO, and I’m known for my work on this,” he told the Journal. “I recognized the historical importance of it and the value I would be able to bring to it.” The WHO’s Mr. Jasarevic said Dr. Daszak’s expertise in studying bats and zoonotic diseases was “good experience for the team” and didn’t pose a conflict of interest. Dr. Daszak said he asked WIV researchers on the visit why a database of viruses the institute had publicly posted had been taken offline. Dr. Shi responded that the institute had had to take down the database—an Excel spreadsheet—after about 3,000 hacking attempts, Dr. Daszak said. The decision to rank the lab theory as “extremely unlikely” was unanimous, they said. “I waited until everyone else had passed their opinion and then I passed mine,” Dr. Daszak said, “because of the sensitivities around my work with the Wuhan lab.”READ THE WALL STREET JOURNAL ARTICLE IN FULL

    ACCORDING TO WHO'S REPORT DASZAK'S JOINT INTERNATIONAL TEAM EXAMINED FOUR SCENARIOS:

  • Direct zoonotic transmission to humans (spillover);
  • Introduction through an intermediate host followed by spillover;
  • Introduction through the (cold) food chain;
  • Introduction through a laboratory incident.

    For each of these possible pathways of emergence, the joint team conducted a qualitative risk assessment, considering the available scientific evidence and findings. It also stated the arguments against each possibility. The team assessed the relative likelihood of these pathways and prioritized further studies that would potentially increase knowledge and understanding globally. The joint team’s assessment of likelihood of each possible pathway was as follows:

  • Direct zoonotic spillover is considered to be a possible-to-likely pathway;
  • Introduction through an intermediate host is considered to be a likely to very likely pathway; the possible intermediate host of sars-cov-2 remains elusive.
  • Introduction through cold/ food chain products is considered a possible pathway;
  • Introduction through a laboratory incident was considered to be an extremely unlikely pathway.

    DASZAK IN COMMUNIST CHINA

    THE WHO TEAM PUSHES THE PREPOSTEROUS THEORY THAT THE VIRUS WAS SPREAD TO HUMANS IN SHIPMENTS OF FROZEN FOODS FROM SPAIN

    "The W.H.O. team opened the door to a theory embraced by Chinese officials, saying it was possible the virus might have spread to humans through shipments of frozen food, an idea that has gained little traction with scientists outside China. And the experts pledged to investigate reports that the virus might have been present outside China months before the outbreak in Wuhan in late 2019, a longstanding demand of Chinese officials. The virus was circulating in Wuhan several weeks before it appeared at the Hunan Seafood Wholesale Market, where some of the earliest clusters were initially reported, the experts said. Chinese officials heavily promoted the idea that the virus came from abroad at the news conference on Tuesday, arguing that the search for the origin of the virus should focus on places outside China." https://www.forbesindia.com/article/global-news/china-scores-a-public-relations-win-after-who-mission-to-wuhan/66349/1

    https://www.nytimes.com/2021/02/09/world/asia/wuhan-china-who-covid.html

    "A team of experts selected by the World Health Organization to investigate the origins of the virus that caused the Covid-19 pandemic returned last week from Wuhan, site of the world’s first outbreak. The team, having broken the ice with Chinese scientists, plans to produce a joint report on the possible origins of the virus. The two groups of scientists, from China and the W.H.O., agreed to pursue some ideas that the Chinese government has been promoting, like the possibility that the virus was transported on frozen food. But the W.H.O. team also became frustrated by China’s refusal to turn over raw data for analysis. Peter Daszak, a member of the W.H.O. team and the president of EcoHealth Alliance in New York, is primarily concerned with the animal origins of the virus. A specialist in animal diseases and their spread to humans, Dr. Daszak has worked with the Wuhan Virology Institute, a collaboration that last year prompted the Trump administration to cancel a grant to his organization. In an interview after his return to New York, he said that the visit had provided some new clues, which all of the scientists, Chinese and international, agreed most likely pointed to an animal origin within China or Southeast Asia. The scientists have largely discounted claims that the virus originated in a lab, saying that possibility was so unlikely that it was not worth further investigation." https://www.nytimes.com/2021/02/14/health/WHO-covid-daszak-china-virus.html

    THE ATTEMPT TO BLAME IMPORTED FROZEN FOOD FROM SPAIN FOR THE PANDEMIC

    "The supply chains to Huanan market included cold-chain products and animal products from 20 countries, including those where samples have been reported as positive for SARS-CoV-2 before the end of 2019 and those where close relatives of SARS-CoV-2 are found. There is evidence that some domesticated wildlife the products of which were sold in the market are susceptible to SARS-CoV, but none of the animal products sampled in the market tested positive in this study. In the early phase of pandemic, due to lack of awareness of the potential role of cold chain in virus introduction and transmission, the cold-chain products were not tested. These findings, however, do raise the possibility of different potential pathways of introduction. Preliminary sampling and testing of other markets in Wuhan and upstream suppliers to the Huanan market taken during 2020 did not reveal evidence of SARS-CoV-2 circulating in animals. SARS-CoV-2 has been found to persist in conditions found in frozen food, packaging and cold-chain products. Index cases in recent outbreaks in China have been linked to the cold chain; the virus has been found on packages and products from other countries that supply China with cold-chain products, indicating that it can be carried long distances on cold-chain products. Further analysis will examine spatial and temporal correlations and correct for underlying biases in sampling, and also to trace frozen products back to the Huanan market from suppliers"

    The Spanish flu, also known as the 1918 influenza pandemic, was an unusually deadly influenza pandemic caused by the H1N1 influenza A virus. Lasting from February 1918 to April 1920, it infected 500 million people – about a third of the world's population at the time – in four successive waves.

    THE COVID IN SPAIN WAS NOT FOUND IN THE DRAIN https://www.ub.edu/web/ub/en/menu_eines/noticies/2020/06/042.html

    EVIDENCE FOR THE EARLY OCCURRENCE OF SARS-COV-2 FROM OTHER STUDIES

    "It remains to be determined where SARS-CoV-2 originated. Although the virus was first identified as the cause of a cluster of cases of severe pneumonia in Wuhan, to date it is uncertain from where the first cases originated. A few studies suggest that cases may have occurred before December 2019, the time when circulation of SARS-CoV-2 was thought to have started in Hubei Province. In a retrospective survey, sewage samples collected on 12 March 2019 in Barcelona, Spain, were positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA, but other samples collected between January 2018 and December 2019 were all negative. The PCR signals has not been confirmed by sequencing and could be false-positive signals. Collectively, these studies from different countries suggest that SARS-CoV-2 circulation preceded the initial detection of cases by several weeks. Some of the suspected positive samples were detected even earlier than the first case in Wuhan, suggesting that circulation of the virus in other regions had been missed. So far, however, the study findings were not confirmed, methods used were not standardized, and serological assays may suffer from non-specific signals. Nonetheless, it is important to investigate these potential early events."

    THE FROZEN FOOD THEORY LACKS ONE THING - THERE WOULD HAVE BEEN COVID CASES IN BARCELONA, SPAIN, BEFORE THE ONES IN HUNAN BROKE OUT

    "Three recent COVID-19 outbreaks in China have been linked to exposure to imported refrigerated or frozen seafood products.(27-30) An outbreak in Beijing linked to the Xinfadi market was first identified on 11 June 2020 after 56 days without a single known community case of COVID-19 in Beijing. Full genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of publicly available genomes suggests that the virus was from the L lineage European branch 1 with specific mutations characteristic to the market outbreak. However, it is not possible to fully infer the source of contamination from this work yet. In October 2020, an outbreak occurred in Qingdao. The index cases for the cluster were two dock workers from the city’s port with no history of travel or recognized contact with anyone with confirmed COVID-19; the only epidemiological link which could be established between the cases was exposure to SARS-CoV-2 on the surface of cold-chain packaging. In addition, SARS-CoV-2 viruses were isolated from swabs of the outside surfaces of imported cold-chain packages in Qingdao. Based on these observations, China has launched a programme for systematic screening of packaged frozen imported food. Although re-introduction of a pandemic virus to epidemic-free areas can occur via various transmission routes including imported goods during a pandemic, the similarities between the outbreaks in the Beijing Xinfadi market and Qingdao, leading to the consideration of potential introduction of the virus through frozen products into the Huanan market in late 2019. For research focusing on the origin of SARS-CoV-2, this will need to be aligned with sources of those products. The proportion of cases in stalls with cold-chain goods (5.6%) is significantly higher than those without cold-chain goods (1.7%), and the relative risk of cases in stalls with cold-chain goods is 3.3 times higher than those without cold-chain goods (relative risk = 3.3, 95% CI:1.2-8.6), and the morbidity rate of vendors of cold-chain products is higher than others (3.3% compared with 1.4%), but there is no statistically significant difference. Epidemiological analysis showed that the first three cases in Huanan market all had a history of exposure to cold chain."

    TYPE OF GOODS DEALT BY ENVIRONMENTAL POSITIVE STALLS / RETROSPECTIVE STUDY ON THE COLD CHAIN IN 2019

    "Analyses show that 60% (44/73) of the positive samples are related to 21 stalls, 19 of which were located in the western part of the Huanan market, and the remaining two stalls were located in the eastern part. 16 stalls were dealing with cold-chain product." An inventory was made of imported cold-chain products in large and medium-sized cold warehouses in Wuhan from September to December 2019. It has been confirmed that cold-chain products were still in stock during the above period. From 4-6 February 2021, samples were collected and SARS-CoV-2 NAT were performed on a total of 1055 samples of imported cold-chain food products (no domestic-origin cold chain products could be located at that time) including 330 pieces with outer packages, 244 pieces with inner packages and 481 food samples. The results of SARS-CoV-2 NAT were all negative."

    THE PERSISTENCE OF LIVE SARS-COV-2 IN ENVIRONMENTS RELATED TO THE COLD-CHAIN / EXAMPLES OF INTRODUCTION OF COVID-19 INTO CHINA THROUGH IMPORTED COLD CHAIN PRODUCTS

    "It was noted that in one study, the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 on cold-chain products did not decline after 21 days at 4 °C (refrigerated food) or at -20 °C (frozen food). Even at 21-23 °C, SARS-CoV-2 on cardboard surface remained infective up to 24 hours. After China successfully controlled the COVID-19 epidemic in Wuhan in April 2020, a series of clustered epidemics occurred in various places. According to the experience of prevention and control of these epidemics, especially the successful traceability results of Xinfadi in June, Dalian in July and Qingdao in October 2020, it is confirmed that SARS-CoV-2 can survive and maintain infection activity in cold chain products and packaging for a long time, which provides a scientific basis for the possibility of introduction of SARS-CoV-2 through cold chain products."

    CONCLUSIONS

    "1. CoVs that are phylogenetically related to SARS-CoV-2 were identified in different animals from different countries, including bats (Rhinolophus spp) and customs-seized trafficked Malayan pangolins. Sampling and testing of >1,100 bats in Hubei Province, however, has been conducted but none were positive for viruses close to SARS-CoV-2. Sampling of wildlife across China has been conducted but no samples were positive for SARS-CoV-2.

    2. The Huanan market had evidence of extensive sale of frozen products, fresh sea and aquatic animals and products, livestock meat, and limited farmed wildlife products. All the product samples retrieved during the outbreak investigation tested negative for the SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid.

    3. SARS-CoV-2 can persist in conditions found in frozen food, packaging and cold-chain products. Index cases in recent outbreaks in China have been linked to the imported cold chain. These indicates a possibility of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 through frozen products. The supply chains to the markets in Wuhan included cold-chain products (including the seafood, aquatic products, vegetables, animal products and farmed wildlife products) from several provinces in China and 20 other countries. Suppliers included countries and regions where SARS-CoV-2 (NAT and serum) tested positive before the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2, countries where cold chain imported products were sourced, provinces where domestic wildlife farms were sourced, and where the relatives of SARS-CoV-2 are found in bats and pangolins. There is evidence that some domesticated wildlife species sold in the Huanan market are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 or SARS-CoV, but none of the animal products sampled in the market tested positive. Apart from frozen farmed wildlife products, cold-chain products in Huanan market were not tested specifically in early 2020. These findings do, however, raise the possibility for different potential pathways of introduction, stressing the need for careful trace-back of these supply chains and sample testing.

    4. Preliminary sampling and testing at other markets in Wuhan and upstream suppliers to the Huanan market taken during 2020 did not reveal evidence of SARS-CoV-2 circulating in animals. Evidence was not found of presence of SARS-CoV-2 among animal products in the Huanan market and upstream suppliers.

    5. Environmental sampling in the Huanan market demonstrated widespread contamination of surfaces with SARS-CoV-2, compatible with the virus shedding from infected people in the market at the end of December 2019. However, through extensive testing of animal products in the market, no evidence of animal infections was found. One environmental sample collected on Jan 22, 2020 on a second market tested positive, implying an environmental contamination from the patients in the communities.

    6. Of 923 environmental samples in Huanan market 73 were positive; Forty-four of those positive were from the stalls of 21 vendors dealing in the following products: aquatic animals and products (n = 13), cold-chain products (n = 16), poultry meat (n = 6), seafood products (n = 6), livestock meat (n = 5), vegetable products (n = 2) and farmed wildlife meat (n = 1). Sampling and testing of 38 515 livestock and poultry samples and 41 696 wild animal samples from 31 provinces in China during 2018 to 2020 resulted in no positive SARS-CoV-2 antibody or nucleic acid tests. No evidence was found of circulation of SARS-CoV-2 among domestic livestock, poultry and wild animals before and after the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in China."

    THE BARCELONA WASTE WATER SAMPLES WERE TESTED AFTER THE PANDEMIC BEGAN AND ONLY A MARCH 2019 SAMPLE PROVED POSITIVE FOR SARS CoV-19 INDICATED THE SAMPLE WAS CONTAMINATED IN THE LAB

    In a study not yet published in a journal, scientists have reported that the new coronavirus was present in wastewater in Barcelona, Spain in March 2019, a finding that, if confirmed, would show that the pathogen had emerged much earlier than previously thought.But independent experts who reviewed the findings said they doubted the claim. The study was flawed, they said, and other lines of evidence strongly suggest the virus emerged in China late last year.Up until now, the earliest evidence of the virus anywhere in the world has been from December 2019 in China and it was only known to have hit mainland Spain in February 2020. “Barcelona is a city that is frequented by Chinese people, in tourism and business, so probably this happened also elsewhere, and probably at the same time,” said the lead author, Albert Bosch, a professor in the Department of Microbiology of the University of Barcelona who has been studying viruses in wastewater for more than 40 years. Several experts not involved in the research pointed out problems with the new study, which has not yet been subjected to the critical review by outside experts that occurs before publication in a scientific journal. They suggested that the tests might very well have produced false positives because of contamination or improper storage of the samples.“I don’t trust the results,” said Irene Xagoraraki, an environmental engineer at Michigan State University.

    https://www.nytimes.com/2020/06/26/health/coronavirus-spain.html

    In 2017 Spain was only authorized to export frozen meat and offal and deboned ham to China. A new protocol changes everything, allowing China to import a much larger range of products from Spain, including chilled fresh meat and cured meats such as chorizo, salchichón, ham and shoulder.

    THE HUNAN MARKET ORIGIN THEORY DEBUNKED BY W.H.O.

    "Many of the early cases were associated with the Huanan market, but a similar number of cases were associated with other markets and some were not associated with any markets. Transmission within the wider community in December 2019 could account for cases not associated with the Huanan market which, together with the presence of early cases not associated with that market, could suggest that the Huanan market was not the original source of the outbreak. Other milder cases that were not identified, however, could provide the link between the Huanan market and early cases without an apparent link to the market."

    "The animal and environment working group reviewed existing knowledge on coronaviruses that are phylogenetically related to SARS-CoV-2 identified in different animals, including horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus spp) and pangolins. However, the presence of SARS-CoV-2 has not been detected through sampling and testing of bats or of wildlife across China. More than 80 000 wildlife, livestock and poultry samples were collected from 31 provinces in China and no positive result was identified for SARS-CoV-2 antibody or nucleic acid before and after the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in China. Through extensive testing of animal products in the Huanan market, no evidence of animal infections was found."

    WHO: INTRODUCTION THROUGH A LABORATORY INCIDENT

    EXPLANATION OF HYPOTHESIS

    WHO: SARS-COV-2 IS INTRODUCED THROUGH A LABORATORY INCIDENT, REFLECTING AN ACCIDENTAL INFECTION OF STAFF FROM LABORATORY ACTIVITIES INVOLVING THE RELEVANT VIRUSES. WE DID NOT CONSIDER THE HYPOTHESIS OF DELIBERATE RELEASE OR DELIBERATE BIOENGINEERING OF SARS-COV-2 FOR RELEASE, THE LATTER HAS BEEN RULED OUT BY OTHER SCIENTISTS FOLLOWING ANALYSES OF THE GENOME. [What other scientists?]

    ARGUMENTS IN FAVOR OF INTRODUCTION THROUGH A LABORATORY INCIDENT

    "Although rare, laboratory accidents do happen, and different laboratories around the world are working with bat CoVs. When working in particular with virus cultures, but also with animal inoculations or clinical samples, humans could become infected in laboratories with limited biosafety, poor laboratory management practice, or following negligence. The closest known CoV RaTG13 strain (96.2%) to SARS-CoV-2 detected in bat anal swabs have been sequenced at the Wuhan Institute of Virology. The Wuhan CDC laboratory moved on December 2, 2019 to a new location near the Huanan market. Such moves can be disruptive for the operations of any laboratory."

    ARGUMENTS AGAINST INTRODUCTION THROUGH A LABORATORY INCIDENT

    "The closest relatives of SARS-CoV-2 from bats and pangolin are evolutionarily distant from SARS-CoV-2. There has been speculation regarding the presence of human ACE2 receptor binding and a furin-cleavage site in SARS-CoV-2, but both have been found in animal viruses as well, and elements of the furin-cleavage site are present in RmYN02 and the new Thailand bat SARSr-CoV. [The ACE2 receptor binding and a furin-cleavage site in animals is non-infectious] The There is no record of viruses closely related to SARS-CoV-2 in any laboratory before December 2019, or genomes that in combination could provide a SARS-CoV-2 genome. Regarding accidental culture, prior to December 2019, there is no evidence of circulation of SARS-CoV-2 among people globally and the surveillance programme in place was limited regarding the number of samples processed and therefore the risk of accidental culturing SARS-CoV-2 in the laboratory is extremely low. The three laboratories in Wuhan working with either CoVs diagnostics and/or CoVs isolation and vaccine development all had high quality biosafety level (BSL3 or 4) facilities that were well-managed, with a staff health monitoring programme with no reporting of COVID-19 compatible respiratory illness during the weeks/months prior to December 2019, and no serological evidence of infection in workers through SARS-CoV-2-specific serology-screening. The Wuhan CDC lab which moved on 2nd December 2019 reported no disruptions or incidents caused by the move. They also reported no storage nor laboratory activities on CoVs or other bat viruses preceding the outbreak."

    ASSESSMENT OF LIKELIHOOD

    In view of the above, a laboratory origin of the pandemic was considered to be extremely unlikely. What would be needed to increase knowledge? Regular administrative and internal review of high-level biosafety laboratories worldwide. Follow-up of new evidence supplied around possible laboratory leaks.

    REFERENCES INDICATE ANDERSON INTERFACES WITH ECOHEALTH
  • (1) Likert R. (1932). A technique for the measurement of attitudes. Archives of Psychology, 140:44–53.

  • (2) Olival, K., Hosseini, P., Zambrana-Torrelio, C. et al. Host and viral traits predict zoonotic spillover from mammals. Nature 546, 646–650 (2017)*

  • (3) Kristain G Andersen Rambaut A, Lipkin WI, Holmes EC, and Garry RF (2020). The proximal origin of SARS-CoV-2. Nature Medicine 26:450-452

    *Author information Affiliations EcoHealth Alliance, 460 West 34th Street, New York, 10001, New York, USA Kevin J. Olival, Parviez R. Hosseini, Carlos Zambrana-Torrelio, Noam Ross, Tiffany L. Bogich & Peter Daszak

    Nature Magazine: "That the WIV, a laboratory highly regarded for its work on bat coronaviruses, is located in the city where the outbreak first emerged is probably just a coincidence." https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-020-01541-z China owns Nature magazine: Debunking “The proximal origin of SARS-CoV-2” claiming COVID-19 definitely wasn’t from a lab https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2018/10/03/book-publishers-part-ways-springer-nature-over-concerns-about-censorship-china

    KRISTIAN ANDERSON

    A statement which had enormous influence in shaping public attitudes was a letter (in other words an opinion piece, not a scientific article) published on 17 March 2020 in the journal Nature Medicine. Its authors were a group of virologists led by Kristian G. Andersen of the Scripps Research Institute. “Our analyses clearly show that SARS-CoV-2 is not a laboratory construct or a purposefully manipulated virus,” the five virologists declared in the second paragraph of their letter. True, some older methods of cutting and pasting viral genomes retain tell-tale signs of manipulation. But newer methods, called “no-see-um” or “seamless” approaches, leave no defining marks. Nor do other methods for manipulating viruses such as serial passage, the repeated transfer of viruses from one culture of cells to another. If a virus has been manipulated, whether with a seamless method or by serial passage, there is no way of knowing that this is the case. Dr. Andersen and his colleagues were assuring their readers of something they could not know.

    HIGHLIGHTS FROM SHORT W.H.O. REPORT. FOR ENTIRE SHORT REPORT CLICK HERE

    1. Alignment of the full-length genome sequence of the COVID-19 virus and other available genomes of Betacoronavirus showed the closest relationship was with the bat SARS-like coronavirus strain BatCov RaTG13, identity 96%. CLICK FOR THE SIGNFICANCE OF THAT 4% DIFFERENCE

    2. Transgenic human ACE2 mice and Rhesus monkey intranasally challenged by this virus isolate induced multifocal pneumonia with interstitial hyperplasia. The COVID-19 virus was subsequently detected and isolated in the lung and intestinal tissues of the challenged animals. ACE2 AFFINITY INDICATES DESIGNER VIRUS

    3. COVID-19 is a zoonotic virus. From phylogenetics analyses undertaken with available full genome sequences, bats appear to be the reservoir of COVID-19 virus, but the intermediate host (s) has not yet been identified. However, three important areas of work are already underway in China to inform our understanding of the zoonotic origin of this outbreak. These include early investigations of cases with symptom onset in Wuhan throughout December 2019, environmental sampling from the Huanan Wholesale Seafood Market and other area markets, and the collection of detailed records on the source and type of wildlife species sold at the Huanan market and the destination of those animals after the market was closed...Early cases identified in Wuhan are believed to be have acquired infection from a zoonotic source as many reported visiting or working in the Huanan Wholesale Seafood Market. As of 25 February, an animal source has not yet been identified. CLICK HERE FOR MORE ON THE WUHNAN MARKET MYTH

    4. Airborne spread has not been reported for COVID-19 and it is not believed to be a major driver of transmission based on available evidence; however, it can be envisaged if certain aerosol-generating procedures are conducted in health care facilities. Nationally, wildlife markets were closed and wildlife captive-breeding facilities were cordoned off. [MORE OF THE DASZAK CHI-COM ANIMAL TO HUMAN MARKET CCP LINE.]

    Similarly, there is a long list of proposed studies on the origins of COVID-19, the natural history of the disease, and the virus’s transmission dynamics. However, the urgency of responding to cases and saving lives makes it difficult for policy makers to consider and act on such comprehensive lists. [IN OTHER WORDS WE MUST POSTPONE ANY FURTHER INVESTIGATION OF THE ORIGIN OF COV-2 FOR THE DISTANT FUTURE.]

    W.H.O. REPORT IS A BIG NOTHING BURGER

    D. Knowledge Gaps Knowledge gaps and key questions to be answered to guide control strategies include:

    Source of infection
  • Animal origin and natural reservoir of the virus
  • Human-animal interface of the original event
  • Early cases whose exposure could not be identified

    WALL STREET JOURNAL: SCIENTISTS REJECT COVID-COVER-UP ORCHESTRATED BY DASZAK

    BEIJING—A World Health Organization team investigating the origins of Covid-19 is planning to scrap an interim report on its recent mission to China amid mounting tensions between Beijing and Washington over the investigation and an appeal from one international group of scientists for a new probe. The group of two dozen scientists is calling in an open letter on Thursday for a new international inquiry. They say the WHO team that last month completed a mission to Wuhan—the Chinese city where the first known cases were found—had insufficient access to adequately investigate possible sources of the new coronavirus, including whether it slipped from a laboratory. Their appeal comes as the U.S.—which recently reversed a decision to leave the WHO— lobbies for greater transparency in the investigation, saying it is waiting to scrutinize the report on the Wuhan mission, and urging China to release all relevant data, including on the first confirmed infections in December 2019, and potential earlier ones. Beijing, meanwhile, is pressing for similar WHO-led missions to other countries, including the U.S., to investigate whether the virus could have originated outside China and spread to Wuhan via frozen food packaging. WHO chief Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus said on Feb. 12 that the team would release an interim report briefly summarizing the Wuhan mission, possibly the following week, with a full report coming weeks later. But that summary report has yet to be published and the WHO team is now scrapping that plan, said Peter Ben Embarek, the food-safety scientist who led the team. The WHO team plans to publish a summary along with the full, final report, he said. That final report “will be published in coming weeks and will include key findings,” a WHO spokesman said. ALSO SEE https://int.nyt.com/data/documenttools/covid-origins-letter/5c9743168205f926/full.pdf


    WHO


    STILL HEAD OF WHO

    WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION CULPABILITY: HEAD OF WHO IS MAOIST CHINESE AGENT OF INFLUENCE

    Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus is an Ethiopian microbiologist and internationally recognized malaria researcher, who has served since 2017 as Director-General of the World Health Organization. Tedros is the first non-physician and first African in the role, who has been endorsed by the African Union. Born: March 3, 1965 (age 55 years), Asmara, Eritrea Nationality: Ethiopian Party: Tigray People's Liberation Front

    Tigray Peoples Liberation Front (TPLF) SUMMARY: The Tigrayan People's Liberation Front (TPLF) is a political party in Tigray, Ethiopia that has been listed as a perpetrator in the Global Terrorism Database, based on ten incidents occurring between 1976 and 1990 (see GTD link). Tigray Peoples Liberation Front (TPLF), also known as Popular revolution for the freedom of Tigray, Woyane, Weyane is an active group formed c. 1975. TRAC ANALYSIS: IDEOLOGY Separatist / New Regime Nationalist / Ethnic Nationalist, Left Wing Terrorist Groups (Maoist, Marxist, Communist, Socialist) TRAC ANALYSIS: TACTICS Attacks on Soft Targets, Assassinations as a Terrorist Tactic TRAC

    WALL STREET JOURNAL BLAMES WHO

    "Much of the blame for WHO’s failures lies with Dr. Tedros, who is a politician, not a medical doctor. As a member of the left-wing Tigray People’s Liberation Front, he rose through Ethiopia’s autocratic government as health and foreign minister. After taking the director-general job in 2017, he tried to install Zimbabwe dictator Robert Mugabe as a WHO goodwill ambassador. China inevitably gains more international clout as its economy grows. But why does WHO seem so much more afraid of Beijing’s ire than Washington’s? Only 12% of WHO’s assessed member-state contributions come from China. The U.S. contributes 22%. Americans at WHO generally are loyal to the institution, while Chinese appointees put Chinese interests first or they will suffer Beijing’s wrath. To avoid stigmatization against nation and race, the World Health Organization discourages the use of regions, countries, individuals, and animals on naming human infectious diseases and pathogens in its guidelines issued in 2015. The guidelines emphasize that viruses infect all people. That is to say, when an outbreak happens, everyone is at risk, regardless of his or her identity or location. The WHO on February 11 announced the name of the novel coronavirus as SARS-CoV-2 on social media to “prevent the use of other names that can be inaccurate or stigmatizing,” WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus said." https://www.wsj.com/articles/world-health-coronavirus-disinformation-11586122093

    EARLY WHO REPORT

    "Pneumonia of unknown cause – China Disease outbreak news 5 January 2020. On 31 December 2019, the WHO China Country Office was informed of cases of pneumonia of unknown etiology (unknown cause) detected in Wuhan City, Hubei Province of China.According to the authorities, some patients were operating dealers or vendors in the Huanan Seafood market. Based on the preliminary information from the Chinese investigation team, no evidence of significant human-to-human transmission and no health care worker infections have been reported. Based on information provided by national authorities, WHO’s recommendations on public health measures and surveillance of influenza and severe acute respiratory infections still apply. WHO does not recommend any specific measures for travellers. In case of symptoms suggestive of respiratory illness either during or after travel, travellers are encouraged to seek medical attention and share travel history with their healthcare provider. WHO advises against the application of any travel or trade restrictions on China based on the current information available on this event."

    WHO REPRESENTATIVE TO CHINA DURING EARLY PHASE OF PANDEMIC WAS EXPERT IN NONCOMMUNICABLE DISEASES

    Director of the Division of Noncommunicable Diseases and Promoting Health through the Life-course Mission. The Division aims to improve health in the WHO European Region by addressing the determinants, risks and consequences of chronic, noncommunicable conditions, by promoting mental and physical wellbeing across the life course, by the population-based prevention and clinical control of disease, and by preventing violence and injury. Biography: Dr Gauden Galea is a public health physician who has worked for WHO since 1998. He has held posts as regional adviser on noncommunicable diseases in the Western Pacific Region, and as coordinator of health promotion in WHO headquarters. Dr Galea has been Director of the Division of Noncommunicable Diseases and Health Promotion at WHO/Europe since January 2011. He has a special interest in health promotion, in the social determinants of noncommunicable diseases, and in the links between these diseases and the development agenda."
    "Dr Gauden: https://web.archive.org/web/20160609075623/http://www.euro.who.int/en/about-us/executive-management/dr-gauden-galeaGalea

    TRUMP PULLS USA OUT OF WHO

    "The Chinese government has continually violated its promises to us and so many other nations these plain facts cannot be overlooked or swept aside. The world is now suffering as a result of the malfeasance of the Chinese government. China's cover-up of the Wuhan virus allowed the disease to spread all over the world instigating a global pandemic that has cost more than 100,000 in American lives and over a million lives worldwide. Chinese officials ignored their reporting obligations to the World Health Organization and pressured the World Health Organization to mislead the world when the virus was first discovered by Chinese authorities. Countless lives have been taken and profound economic hardship has been inflicted all around the globe. They strongly recommended against me doing the early ban from China but I did it anyway it was proven to be 100% correct. China has total control over the World Health Organization despite only paying 40 million dollars per year compared to what the United States has been paying which is approximately 450 million dollars a year. We have detailed the reforms that it must make and engage with them directly but they have refused to act because they have failed to make the requested and greatly needed reforms. We will be today terminating our relationship with the World Health Organization and redirecting those funds to other worldwide and serving urgent global public health needs. The world needs answers from China on the virus. We must have transparency. Why is it that China shut off infected people from Wuhan to all other parts of China. It went nowhere else. It didn't go to Beijing it went nowhere else but they allowed them to freely travel throughout the world including Europe and the United States. The death and destruction caused by this is incalculable. We must have answers not only for us but for the rest of the world. This pandemic has underscored the crucial importance of building up America's economic independence reshoring our critical supply chains and protecting America's scientific and technological advances. For years the government of China has conducted illicit espionage to steal our industrial secrets of which there are many today I will issue a proclamation to better secure our nation's vital university research and to suspend the entry of certain foreign nationals from China who we have identified as potential security risks."


    ADDENDUM

    MUTATIONS / VARIANTS

    VIDEOS


    ECO-HEALTH ALLIANCE

    520 Eighth Avenue, Ste. 1200, New York, NY 10018 212.380.4460 AS SOON AS THIS PANDEMIC ENDS THOSE WHO SURVIVED COVID WILL DEMONSTRATE IN FRONT OF THIS OFFICE
    60 VIOLA RD, SUFFERN, NY 10901-3209

    director@peterdaszak.com


    DASZAK EMAILS

    Dear Randy:

    As a member of the EcoHealth Alliance Board of Trustees, I would like to thank you and your wonderful colleagues for the generous vocal support and for the funding you are making possible for Peter and his research team. The entire board and the Alliance team are truly grateful for the extraordinary boost in morale you and your colleagues have provided. Peter and his team are doing critically important work on COVID-19 and its origin. In genuine gratitude, Rita.

    On Wed, May 27, 2020 at 8:13 PM Randy W SCHEKMAN wrote: Dear Peter, I am part of the Rich Roberts group and helped to line-up more Laureates to join the petition to Azar and Collins. We don’t expect a response from them but we wish to make a constructive contribution to your essential work and have resolved to help find private funds to offset your loss. Our first success is with a foundation that makes anonymous contributions to various causes including in support of biomedical science. I am pleased to report that this group will provide the EcoHealth Alliance a grant of $500,000 to at least partially offset the NIH funds that were withdrawn from your program. Since they wish to remain anonymous, I will be happy to serve as the intermediary in transfer of funds to your program. We can communicate about how to proceed. Best wishes, Randy Schekman Randy Schekman HHMI Investigator Dept. of Mol. and Cell Biology Li Ka Shing Center UC Berkeley Berkeley, CA 94720-3370 (510) 642-5686 Stephanie Canon Assistant to Randy Schekman 484 Li Ka Shing Center Berkeley, CA 94720-3370 (510) 642-0594 stephaniecanon@berkeley.edu Re: A contribution to your work May 27, 2020 9:04:00 PM EDT Aleksei Chmura

    Dear Ralph, Linda, Jim, Rita, Linfa and Hume,

    I’ve been following the events around the novel coronavirus emergence in China very closely and have been dismayed by the recent spreading of rumors, misinformation and conspiracy theories on its origins. These are now specifically targeting scientists with whom we’ve collaborated for many years, and who have been working heroically to fight this outbreak and share data with unprecedented speed, openness and transparency. These conspiracy theories threaten to undermine the very global collaborations that we need to deal with a disease that has already spread across continents. We have drafted a simple statement of solidarity and support for scientists, public health and medical professionals of China, and would like to invite you to join us as the first signatories. If you agree, we will send this letter to a group of around half-a-dozen other leaders in the field and then disseminate this widely with a sign-up webpage for others to show their support by signing up to its language. I will then personally present this at my plenary during the ICID 2020 conference in Malaysia in two weeks, with the goal of also getting widespread attention in SE Asia to our support for the work that our colleagues in China are undertaking. I sincerely hope you can join us. Please review the letter, and let me know if you are willing to join Billy Karesh and myself as co-signatories. Also, please confirm your title and affiliation that will be shown in the letter. We plan to make circulate this widely to coincide with a letter from the Presidents of the US National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine, which will likely be released tomorrow or Friday. Thank you for your consideration and support of the scientific and public health community around the world!

    Cheers,
    Peter
    Peter Daszak
    President
    EcoHealth Alliance
    460 West 34th Street – 17th Floor
    New York, NY 10001
    Tel. +1 212-380-4474
    Website: www.ecohealthalliance.

    Organizations Filed Purposes: Ecohealth Alliance integrates innovative science-based solutions and partnerships that increase capacity to achieve two interrelated goals: protecting global health by preventing the outbreak of emerging diseases and safeguarding ecosystems by promoting conservation. USAID PREDICT EMERGING PANDEMIC THREAT PROGRAM - assesses capacity and develops plans for the implementation of wildlife surveillance support. They develop models of disease risk and spread, implement a smart (strategic, measurable, adaptive, responsive, and targeted) wildlife surveillance strategy to identify and target high-risk wildlife in the region's most vulnerable to zoonotic disease emergence. Defense Threat Reduction Agency - Dept of Defense - serological bio surveillance for spillover of henipa viruses and filo viruses at agricultural and hunting human-animal interfaces in peninsular Malaysia. The objective is to enhance capacity within the Malaysia government to characterize the distribution of and detect spillover of novel and known henipa viruses and filo viruses, (both groups include high consequence zoonotic pathogens) in indigenous populations and farms in peninsular Malaysia. Current surveillance strategies for novel zoonotic viruses rely exclusively on molecular detection tools, but Nipah and Ebola viruses are present at low prevalence in bat species which makes infected individuals difficult to detect. By establishing a multiplexed serological assay developed to detect antibodies against any henipa and filo viruses, the government of Malaysia will more effectively be able to determine the distribution of these high-impact viruses in wildlife reservoirs and detect evidence of spillover in at-risk human or livestock populations. The most comprehensive investigation of the epidemiology and ecolog of the RVF virus ever conducted. The project brings together a diverse group of experts from governmental, non-governmental, academic and private organizations, both domestic and international. the 2010-2011 outbreak of RVF in south Africa had a significant impact on the health of people, animals and the local economy. Thus, a better, more integrated understanding of the virus in the environment and in animal and human populations is critically needed to improve public awareness. a booklet explaining the risks of RVF and similar diseases was developed for distribution to study participants in the region. Rather than being a collection of independent science projects, this one health project integrates data collected from climate and weather, vegetation cycles, and mosquito studies to better predict outbreaks in South Africa. Evidence of RVF in animals and people is being collected to better understand exposure, with groups of people in occupations with high risk for rvf and flocks of sheep will be followed for approximately four years. the work is centered in the free state and northern cape provinces and includes the epicenter of previous RVF outbreaks within the 40,000km2 study region. Dr. Peter Daszak is President of EcoHealth Alliance, a US-based organization that conducts research and outreach programs on global health, conservation and international development. Dr. Daszak’s research has been instrumental in identifying and predicting the impact of emerging diseases across the globe. His achievements include identifying the bat origin of SARS, identifying the underlying drivers of Nipah and Hendra virus emergence, producing the first ever global emerging disease hotspots map, developing a strategy to find out how many unknown viruses exist that could threaten to become pandemic, identifying the first case of a species extinction due to disease, and discovering the disease chytridiomycosis as the cause global amphibian declines.

    PREDICT is a consortium or partners working to enable global surveillance for pathogens that can spillover from animal hosts to people by building capacities to detect and discover viruses of pandemic potential. The project is part of USAID’s Emerging Pandemic Threats program and is led by the UC Davis One Health Institute. The core partners are USAID, EcoHealth Alliance, Metabiota Inc., Wildlife Conservation Society, and Smithsonian Institution, along with a network of scientists and professionals in over 30 countries around the world. Contact us at predict@ucdavis.edu.
    https://www.linkedin.com/groups/13618543

    COVID 19 RESEARCH INSTITUTE



    GUIDESTAR NON-PROFIT REPORT

    DASZAK TWEETS



    https://www.ecohealthalliance.org/updates

    TABLE OF CONTENTS FOR PETER DASZAK

    GOVERNMENT GRANTS TO CIA FRONT ECOHEALTH ALLIANCE
    GOVERNMENT SUBGRANTS TO CIA FRONT ECOHEALTH ALLIANCE
    THE WALL STREET JOURNAL: HOW THE WHO'S HUNT FOR COVID'S ORIGINS STUMBLED IN CHINA
    STATEMENT IN SUPPORT OF THE SCIENTISTS, PUBLIC HEALTH, AND MEDICAL PROFESSIONALS OF CHINA COMBATING THE NOVEL CORONAVIRUS OUTBREAK
    DASZAK HACKED EMAILS
    GAIN OF FUNCTION JUNK SCIENCE- or GUESS HOW THE VIRUS WILL MUTATE SO YOU CAN DEVELOP A VACCCINE BEFORE A PANDEMIC BREAKS OUT
    2011: RON FOUCHIER: MAKES AVIAN FLU COMMUNICABLE TO HUMANS AFTER AMERICA BANS IT AS TOO DANGEROUS
    2011 GREAT AMERICAN HERO ANTHONY FAUCI HELPED ENGINEER SARS-CoV-2 BY OPPOSING GoF BAN
    ANTHONY S. FAUCI'S EXPERIMENTS INVOLVED DURC: DUAL USE RESEARCH OF CONCERN - THERE WAS A BIG FLAP OVER USE BY TERRORISTS TO CREATE A SUPER VIRUS
    GAIN-OF-FUNCTION OUTSOURCED TO WUHAN INSTITUTE OF VIROLOGY
    DECEMBER 2017: FRANCIS COLLINS RESUMES FUNDING GAIN-OF-FUNCTION / GAIN-OF-THREAT EXPERIMENTS
    RICHARD EBRIGHT: THESE EXPERIMENTS HAS GOTS TO GO!

    DASZACK FINANCED SHI ZHENGLI AT THE WIV

    GAIN OF FUNCTION EXPERIMENTS WAS PART OF THE PREDICT PROGRAM AND THAT WAS WHY IT WAS SHUT DOWN
    THE PREDICT PROGRAM WAS A CON JOB AND FAILURE. THE USAID (CIA PROPRIETARY) GRANT WAS USED TO CREATE THE VIRUS
    PETER DASZAK HELPED FINANCE THE CREATION OF SARS CoV-2
    DASZAK SAYS STAY AHEAD OF THE CURVE WITH GAIN-OF-FUNCTION / GAIN-OF-THREAT EXPERIMENTS
    GAIN-OF-FUNCTION / GAIN-OF-THREAT DEBATE AND BAN: DASZACK SUPPORTS GoF RESEARCH
    RICHARD EBRIGHT OPPOSES GoF EXPERIMENTS
    FAUCI PROPONENT OF GAIN-OF-FUNCTION / GAIN-OF-THREAT OPPOSES GAIN-OF-FUNCTION / GAIN-OF-THREAT BAN IN WASHINGTON POST EDITORAL
    FAUCI SUPPORTED GAIN-OF-FUNCTION / GAIN-OF-THREAT RESEARCH
    WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION IS IN FAVOR OF SHARING H5N1 VIRUS GAIN-OF-FUNCTION RESEARCH 2012
    OBAMA BANS GAIN-OF-FUNCTION RESEARCH IN US OCTOBER 2014
    ONE OF SEVERAL NEAR FATAL ERRORS THAT TRIGGERED THE GoF BAN INVOLVED H5N1 INFLUENZA VIRUS
    GAIN-OF-FUNCTION FARMED OUT TO WUHAN INSTITUTE OF VIROLOGY 2014-2019 AFTER AMERICA BANS IT AS TOO DANGEROUS
    TRUMP CUTS ECO HEALTH ALLIANCE FUNDING
    GAIN OF FUNCTION RESEARCH INVOLVES CREATION OF RECOMINANT VIRUS IN UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA IN COLLABORATION WITH SCIENTISTS FROM WIV "Utilizing the SARS-CoV infectious clone, we generated and characterized a chimeric virus [a genetic chimerism or chimera is a single organism composed of cells with more than one distinct genotype] expressing the spike of bat coronavirus SHC014 in a mouse adapted SARS-CoV backbone. "
    OXFORD UNIVERSITY PUBLICATION NATURE "ENGINEERED BAT VIRUS STIRS DEBATE OVER RISKY RESEARCH: LAB-MADE CORONA VIRUS RELATED TO SARS CAN INFECT HUMAN CELLS" "Declan Butler November 12, 2015 An experiment that created a hybrid version of a bat coronavirus — one related to the virus that causes SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) — has triggered renewed debate over whether engineering lab variants of viruses with possible pandemic potential is worth the risks.
    PETER DASZAK’S ECO-HEALTH ALLIANCE HAS HIDDEN ALMOST $40 MILLION IN PENTAGON FUNDING AND MILITARIZED PANDEMIC SCIENCE

    THE WUHAN MARKET ANIMAL TO HUMAN MYTH

    HARVARD UNIVERSITY STUDY ABSOLVES WUHAN MARKET TRANSMISSION
    DANIEL LUCEY - LUCEY IN THE SKY WITH PATIENT ZER0
    THE VIRUS INFECTED A MARKET 30 KILOMETERS FROM THE HIGHEST CONTAINMENT LABORATORY IN CHINA
    PATIENT ZERO
    ZHANG LI OBJECTS TO WUHAN MARKET THEORY
    SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN STUDY
    COVID DASZAK INTERVIEW PUSHES ANIMAL TO HUMAN THEORY ALTHOUGH NO ONE SAYS WHAT ANIMAL
    SARS COV-2 WAS NEVER FOUND IN THE BLOOD OR FECES OF ANY ANIMAL
    SARS CoV1 WAS FOUND IN ANIMALS
    THE SEARCH FOR THE VIRUS IN NATURE
    THE SEARCH FOR THE VIRUS IN NATURE CONTINUES: THE BAT-DERIVED CORONAVIRUS RaTG13 SHARES 93.3 PER CENT NUCLEOTIDE IDENTITY WITH SARS-COV-2 AT THE SCALE OF THE COMPLETE VIRUS GENOME BUT IS NOT THE EVOLUTIONARY ANCESTOR OF SARS CoV
    2020: RATG13: CHINESE SCIENTISTS CAN ONLY FIND VIRUSES THAT RESEMBLE SARS CoV2 96% AND EXHIBIT DISSIMILAR AMINO ACID INSERTIONS SINCE THEY DO NOT TRANSMIT DISEASE

    DASZAK LACK OF BONO FIDE CREDENTIALS

    PETER DASZAK HAS NO MEDICAL DEGREE AND IS A WORLD CLASS CONMAN
    DASZAK IS AN EXPERT ON FUNGI, NOT VIRUSES
    DASZAK CLAIMS HE WARNED THE WORLD ABOUT COVID
    DASZAK BLAMES UNITED STATES FEDERAL GOVERNMENT FOR MONKEY POX
    BLAMES EURASIA FOR SWINE FLU, NOT CHINA
    HAPPY TO BLAME THE SAUDIS FOR MERS
    BLAMES PHARMA FOR COVID
    SCIENTISTS REJECT COVID-COVER-UP ORCHESTRATED BY "COVID DASZAK"
    DASZACK GRANTS AND PAPERS
    DASZAK CHRONOLOGY
    TELEGRAPH UK CO PEOPLE BUY INTO CONSPIRACY THEORIES BECAUSE THEY’RE CONVINCING STORIES TOLD BY CHARISMATIC PEOPLE WITH JUST ENOUGH SCIENCE AND FACT TO MAKE THEM SEEM PLAUSIBLE
    DASZAK TWEETS
    SOME OF USAID/CIA ECO-HEALTH PREDICT CREW

    DASZAK ASSOCIATE "BAT LADY" PROFESSOR SHI ZHENG LI STARTED THE PANDEMIC

    WORKED CLOSELY WITH ZHENG-LI SHI, THE BAT SHIT LADY
    ECOHEALTH WORKED WITH CHINA’S WUHAN INSTITUTE OF VIROLOGY TO STUDY CORONAVIRUSES IN BATS THAT COULD INFECT HUMANS
    DASZAK COLLABORATED WITH THE WUHAN INSTITUTE OF VIROLOGY
    SCIENTISTS INVOLVED IN UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA VIRUS CREATION: XING-YI GE AND ZHENGLI-LI SHI SHI ZHENGLI

    THE CHINESE COMMUNIST PARTY

    TRAP SET BY THIS RESEARCHER SNARES CHINESE INTEREST IN DASZIG
    WORKED IN CHINA FOR 15 YEARS - RECRUITED BY CHINESE INTELLIGENCE
    DASZAK BLAMES CHINA'S ECONOMIC PROSPERITY FOR SARS
    NEVER MENTIONS CHINESE VILLAGES
    NEVER BLAMES CHINA FOR SPREAD OF NEW VIRUSES
    FOCUS ON BATS TO GET THE HEAT OFF CHINA
    CHI COM PROPAGANDA QUOTES PETER DASZAK
    FEBRUARY 2020 CHINESE ATTEMPT TO PROVE THAT THE UNIQUE CORONA VIRUS WAS FOUND IN NATURE
    SOUTH CHINA MORNING POST CCP MOUTHPIECE: CORONAVIRUS LAB LEAK CLAIMS ‘PURE FABRICATION’, WUHAN LAB CHIEF SAYS MAY 24, 2020
    CHICOM DISINFORMATION CAMPAIGN

    THE WUHAN INSTITUTE OF VIROLOGY

    THE FRENCH STARTED THE WIV
    DEFENSE, EXTERNAL INTELLIGENCE (DGSE) AND FOREIGN AFFAIRS WERE STANDING AGAINST A PROJECT THAT COULD SERVE A MILITARY BACTERIOLOGICAL WEAPON PROGRAM.
    CHINESE RESPONSE TO ISABELLE LASSERRE
    THE WHO TEAM PUSHES THE PREPOSTEROUS THEORY THAT THE VIRUS WAS SPREAD TO HUMANS IN SHIPMENTS OF FROZEN FOODS
    THE CHINESE COMMUNIST PARTY (CCP) POLITICAL OPERATIVE AT WIV
    THE STATE DEPARTMENT CABLES INDICATE A LACK OF TRAINED TECHNICIANS AT WIV. LACK OF CELL PHONE ACTIVITY AT WIV
    WIV WAS CALLING IN OUTSIDERS TO HELP WITH BIOSAFETY
    RECTIFICATION OF LAB THAT MAPPED GENOME
    THE WIV SCIENTISTS BEGAN COLLECTING BAT VIRUS SINCE THE SARS OUTBREAK 2002-2004
    2015 ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A NOVEL BAT CORONA VIRUS CLOSELY RELATED TO THE DIRECT PROGENITOR OF SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME CORONAVIRUS

    LAB LEAKS

    DASZAK: LOOK, FIRST, THE IDEA THAT THIS VIRUS ESCAPED FROM A LAB IS JUST PURE BALONEY. IT’S SIMPLY NOT TRUE
    THE SARS ESCAPE
    THE SMALLPOX ESCAPE
    THE ANTHRAX ESCAPE

    THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION

    WALL STREET JOURNAL BLAMES WHO
    WHO REPRESENTATIVE TO CHINA DURING EARLY PHASE OF PANDEMIC WAS EXPERT IN NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASES
    ZOOM MEETING OF WHO SCIENTISTS

    TRUMP

    TRUMP CUTS OFF FUNDS TO ECOHEALTH ALLIANCE 2020
    INTELL POMPEO RECEIVED FROM THE CIA
    TRUMP ENDS GRANT THAT AUGMENTED THE MONEY DASZAK RECEIVED FROM CHINA
    WORLD LEADERS HAVE THEIR DOUBTS ABOUT THE ORIGIN OF THE VIRUS
    TRUMP PULLS USA OUT OF WHO

    THE COVER-UP

    NPR: VIRUS IS TO DEADLY TO BE COMPUTER GENERATED
    KRISTIAN ANDERSON FAIRY TALES ON THE ORIGINS OF THE VIRUS

    MISC.

    2020: RmYN02
    WEIFENG SHI
    SCIENCE DIRECT COMMENTARY
    THE AUSTRALIAN STUDY: SPIKE PROTEIN OPTIMIZED TO BIND TO HUMAN ACE2. IN SILICO COMPARISON OF SPIKE PROTEIN-ACE2 BINDING AFFINITIES ACROSS SPECIES; SIGNIFICANCE FOR THE POSSIBLE ORIGIN OF THE SARS-COV-2 VIRUS
    SYMPTOMS OF SARS DID NOT ENTAIL A MYRIAD OF OTHER DISEASES
    VIDEOS

    TABLE OF CONTENTS FOR COVID-19 RESEARCH INSTITUTE

    THE FRENCH HELP WIV BUILD THE LEVEL 4 BIOCONTAINMENT LAB DESPITE DUAL USE CONCERNS
    THE PROXIMITY FACTOR
    PATIENT ZERO
    TEXAS COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES IN BED WITH WIV THANKS TO FAUCI GRANT

    IT'S NOT OVER UNTIL THE BAT LADY SINGS

    SHI ZHENG LI CREATED THE COVID-19 VIRUS AT THE WUHAN INSTITUTE OF VIROLOGY
    BATLADY MAKE BIG MISTAKE: SHE DID IT IN A LEVEL 2 BIOCONTAINMENT LAB, AND IT LEAKED OR SOMEONE GOT INFECTED IN THE LAB AND BROUGHT THE VIRUS BACK HOME.
    SHI ZHENG LI WORK AT THE TIME OF OUTBREAK INVOLVED STUDYING CORONA VIRUSES ALMOST IDENTICAL TO SARS Co-V-2
    SHI ZHENG LI CHRONOLOGY SHOWS SHE HAS A FINGER IN EVERY CORONA VIRUS EXPERIMENT
    SHI ZHENG LI POST SARS-CoV-2 IN SCIENCE MAGAZINE
    DESTRUCTION OF SARS-COV-2 SAMPLES
    THE INTERVIEW WITH THE BAT LADY "COVID IS PUNISHMENT FOR AN UNSANITARY LIFESTYLE"
    2018 SHI ZHENG LI WAS CREATING SYNTHETIC VIRUSES
    SHI ZHENG LI 2015 EXPERIMENTS IN UNIVERSITY NORTH CAROLINA, CHAPEL HILL LAB PRODUCED NOVEL VIRUS MORE DEADLY TO OLDER PEOPLE JUST LIKE SARS-CoV-2 AND STIR DEBATE ABOUT GoF RESEARCH CAUSING A PANDEMIC 2020: NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF HEALTH SL-SHC014-MA15: MAN MADE VIRUS WHICH USES ACE2 RECEPTOR
    DECEMBER 2015: SHI ZHENG LI EXPERIMENTS ARE POTENTIAL PANDEMIC VECTOR: "SARS-LIKE CLUSTER OF CIRCULATING BAT CORONAVIRUS POSE THREAT FOR HUMAN EMERGENCE" XING-YI GE, ZHENGLI-LI SHI, AND RALPH S. BARIC

    THE ACE2 AFFINITY INDICATED A DESIGNER VIRUS

    THE AUSTRALIAN STUDY: SPIKE PROTEIN OPTIMIZED TO BIND TO HUMAN ACE2
    SHI ZHENG LI 2015 EXPERIMENTS SYNTHESIZING VIRUSES THAT ATTACK ACE2 RECEPTORS IN HUMANS WERE PRECURSORS TO CREATION OF SARS-CoV-2
    2015: ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A NOVEL BAT CORONA VIRUS CLOSELY RELATED TO THE DIRECT PROGENITOR OF SARS: CREATION OF A VIRUS THAT CAN USE ACE2 AS RECEPTOR

    COVID-19 STILL NOT FOUND IN NATURE

    NEW YORK TIMES 9/20/2020 CHINA VIRUS STILL NOT FOUND IN NATURE
    THE AUSTRIAN STUDY: IS CONSIDERING A GENETIC-MANIPULATION ORIGIN FOR SARS-COV-2 A CONSPIRACY THEORY THAT MUST BE CENSORED? ROSSANA SEGRETO UNIVERSITY OF INNSBRUCK INSTITUTE OF MICROBIOLOGY
    PASSAGING
    THE NORWEGIAN STUDY
    SIR RICHARD DEARLOVE FORMER MI-5 DIRECTOR SUPPORTS NORWEGIAN STUDY
    UNIQUE NEW FEATURE OF SARS-CoV-2 CALLED "UNEXPECTED INSERTION"
    SHING HEI ZHAN, BENJAMIN E. DEVERMAN AND YUJIA ALINA CHAN, “SARS-COV-2 IS WELL ADAPTED FOR HUMANS
    HUMAN ENGINEERING OF A POLYBASIC HA CLEAVAGE SITE MUTANT WAS EASILY ACCOMPLISHED

    BTCOV/4991, RATG13, RMYN02 CLOSE BUT NO CIGAR

    BtCoV/4991, RaTG13, RmYN02 THE MYSTERIOUS BAT VIRUSES COOKED UP TO BE SIMILAR TO SARS-CoV-2
    WEIFENG SHI'S RmYN02 VIRUS THAT HAS DISFUNCTIONAL APPROXIMATION TO POLYBASIC CLEAVAGE SITE PRRA TO PROVE SARS-CoV-2 THIS MUTATION IS FOUND IN NATURE NOT JUST IN THE LAB
    SHI ZHENG LI CALLS THE VIRUSES SIMILAR DESPITE SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE: SARS-CoV-2 IS INFECTIOUS RmYN02 IS NOT
    RaTG13 ALLEGEDLY FOUND IN NATURE, UNAVAILABLE TO THE SCIENTIFIC COMMUNITY
    RESEARCHERS IDENTIFIED THE GENOME SEQUENCE OF RaTG-13 THEY DID NOT ISOLATE NOR OBTAIN THE LIVE VIRUS OF RATG-13.
    WHY THIS VIRUS IS DIFFERENT THAN ALL OTHER CORONA VIRUSES?
    SARS-CoV-1 IS GREASY KIDS STUFF COMPARED TO SARS-CoV-2

    GAIN-OF-FUNCTION / GAIN-OF-THREAT JUNK SCIENCE- or GUESS HOW THE VIRUS WILL MUTATE SO YOU CAN DEVELOP A VACCCINE BEFORE A PANDEMIC BREAKS OUT

    RICHARD EBRIGHT: THESE EXPERIMENTS HAS GOTS TO GO!

    THE DRY WET MARKET

    VIRUS WAS NEVER FOUND IN ANIMALS AT THE WET MARKET OR ANYWHERE ELSE
    THE BATS WERE IN THEIR WINTER HIBERNATION PERIOD WHEN SARS-CoV-2 FIRST APPEARED

    THE PANGOLINS DID IT

    THE PANGOLIN DOESN'T HAVE ENOUGH PROBLEMS SO IT HAS TO BE ACCUSED OF SPREADING COVID.
    SARS-CoV-2 WAS NEVER FOUND IN PANGOLINS

    PETER DASZAK AND ECO HEALTH ALLIANCE FINANCED THE GAIN-OF-FUNCTION / GAIN-OF-THREAT EXPERIMENTS AT THE WIV

    DASZAK INTERVIEW: THEN THERE ARE HEROS LIKE SHI ZHENG LI IN CHINA, WHO HAS STUCK THROUGH DEATH THREATS AND A COMPLETE DISPARAGING OF HER CHARACTER, JUST TO DO WHAT SHE DOES: TRY TO SAVE LIVES
    DASZAK TWEETS

    WORLD LEADERS RESPONSE

    CHICOM RE-ACTION DISINFORMATION CAMPAIGN
    BOLTON AND TRUMP PAVE THE WAY FOR THE PANDEMIC

    WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION WAS A MISERABLE FAILURE AND SHOULD BE DISBANDED

    NEW WHO JUNKET
    WHO DISPUTES THE FACT THE VIRUS LINGERS IN THE AIR INDOORS, INFECTING THOSE NEARBY.
    CCP PROPAGANDA

    HANS KRISTIAN ANDERSON FAIRY TALES ON THE ORIGINS OF THE VIRUS

    KRISTIAN ANDERSON
    THE MANY VARIANTS - EUPHEMISM FOR MUTATION - THAT HAVE EMERGED SHOW THAT BEDFORD IS A WRONG
    WHILE THE ANALYSES ABOVE SUGGEST THAT SARS-COV-2 MAY BIND HUMAN ACE2WITH HIGH AFFINITY, COMPUTATIONAL ANALYSES PREDICT THAT THE INTERACTION IS NOT IDEAL SO IT COULD NOT BE MAN-MADE OTHERWISE THE BINDING WOULD BE IDEAL?
    THE VIRUS WAS NOT MAN MADE BECAUSE IT IS LIKELY THAT SARS-COV-2-LIKE VIRUSES WITH PARTIAL OR FULL POLYBASIC CLEAVAGE SITE PRRA WILL BE DISCOVERED IN OTHER SPECIES
    INSERTION OF A FURIN CLEAVAGE SITE AT THE S1–S2 JUNCTION ENHANCES CELL–CELL FUSION WITHOUT AFFECTING VIRAL ENTRY IS FALSE
    ANDERSON'S BIAS AGAINST TRUMP AFFECTS HIS RESEARCH
    ANDERSON'S ZOONOTIC THEORY